Contributors ix

Publisher's Note xi

Preface xiii

Clinical Applications of Cytokine Assays

  1. K. Wong and C. W. K. Lam
  2. Cytokines: An Overview 1
  3. Cytokines and Diseases 14
  4. Cytokine Assays 20
  5. Clinical Application of Cytokine Assays 28
  6. Conclusions 32

References 32

Current Concepts on Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis

  1. Kusnierz-Cabala, B. Kedra, and M. Sierzega
  2. Introduction 47
  3. Pathophysiology of Acute Pancreatitis 49
  4. Diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis 51
  5. Therapy 67
  6. Conclusions 70

References 70

Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Oxidative Stress in Mitochondrial Diseases

Yau-Huei Wei and Hsin-Chen Lee

  1. Introduction 84
  2. A Brief Review of Studies on Mitochondrial Diseases 85
  3. The Genetic Map and Structural Characteristics of Human Mitochondrial DNA... 86
  4. Transmission by Maternal inheritance and Random segregation of mtDNA

during Mitosis and Development 87

Susceptibility of mtDNA to Oxidative Damage and Mutation 90

Classification of Disease-Associated mtDNA Mutations 90

Molecular Consequences of mtDNA Mutations 97

Biochemical Basis for How mtDNA Mutations Cause

Mitochondrial Dysfunction 100

Oxidative Stress and Oxidative Damage Elicited by mtDNA Mutations 102

Mitochondrial Diseases Caused by Mutations in Nuclear DNA 104

Cybrids for Studies of Mitochondrial Diseases: Applications and Limitations 107

Effect of mtDNA Mutations on the Apoptosis of Human Cells 111

Therapy for Mitochondrial Diseases 113

Concluding Remarks 115

References 116

Autoantibodies to dsDNA, Ro/SSA, and La/SSB in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Jien-Wen Chien and Ching-Yuang Lin

Introduction 129

Basic Studies of Autoantibodies to dsDNA, Ro/SSA, and La/SSB 133

Clinical Aspects of Anti-dsDNA, Anti-Ro/SSA, and

Anti-La/SSB Autoantibodies 145

Discussion and Conclusion 153

References 154

Pathobiochemistry of Nephrotic Syndrome

Vladimír Tesar, Tomás Zima, and Marta Kalousová

Introduction 174

Structure and Function of the Glomerular Capillary Wall 174

Pathogenesis of Proteinuria in Acquired Forms of Nephrotic Syndrome 185

Biochemical Signs and Clinical Symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome 196

Diagnosis of Nephrotic Syndrome 205

Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome 206

Summary 207

References 208

Total Antioxidant Capacity

Grzegorz Bartosz

Introduction 220

Methodology 221

What Determines Total Antioxidant Capacity? 236

Total Antioxidant Capacity of Body Fluids 241

  1. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Tissue Homogenates 246
  2. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Food and Beverages 248
  3. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Plants 251
  4. Antioxidant Activity of Individual Compounds 252
  5. Effect of Nutrition on Total Antioxidant Activity of Body Fluids 254
  6. Effect of Physical Exercise on Blood Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity 259
  7. Alterations in Total Antioxidant Capacity of Body Fluids and

Tissue Homogenates in Diseases and Therapy 260

  1. Points of Concern 269
  2. Conclusions 272

References 272

Lymphoid Malignancies: Immunophenotypic Analysis

Amy Chadburn and Sheshadri Narayanan

  1. Introduction: Immunophenotypic Analysis 293
  2. Background: Immunophenotypic Analysis 295
  3. Normal Lymphoid Cell Development and Antigen Expression 303
  4. Neoplastic Lymphoid Cell Antigen Expression 308
  5. Selected Biochemical Consequences of Neoplastic Transformation 325
  6. Conclusion 329

References 329

Index 355

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