Necrosis and apoptosis have both been observed in the brain after stroke, but only recently has it become recognized that apoptosis might also contribute to ischemic damage. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is characterized by chromatin condensation and nuclear blebbing. In contrast to necrotic injury, apoptosis involves the activation of specific, energy-dependent cell-death pathways. The best-characterized signaling pathways include the intrinsic (mitochondrial-dependent pathway) and the extrinsic (receptor-mediated pathway) (Fig. 4) (102,103).

Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

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