Biomaterial Manipulated Cells

Cell-based therapy may have the capacity to repopulate stroke-injured brain; however, its ability to restore structural and functional neural connections might be limited by the vast amount of brain parenchymal loss. The core of the infarct changes rapidly to a cystic cavity, and even the most capable cells might need intrinsic organization and a template to guide restructuring. To address this need, a pilot experiment was performed (50), in which a NSC-polymer complex was implanted into the infarct region of the focal ischemic area in mice. The NSC-polymer complex filled the cavity with an intricate meshwork of many highly arborized neurites of both host- and donor-derived neurons, and some anatomical connections appeared to be reconstituted, with evidence of neovascularization (50). Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a synthetic biodegradable polymer used widely in clinical medicine (51). Highly hydrophilic, PGA loses its mechanical strength rapidly over 2 to 4 weeks in vivo. NSCs seeded onto the three-dimensional, highly porous PGA scaffolded and cotransplanted into the infarction cavity in mouse brains injured by ischemia-facilitated reformation of structural and functional circuits, particularly, if the cells had been engineered ex vivo to express factors that might attract in-growth of host fibers. New bioscaffolds might provide a matrix to guide cellular organization and growth, allow diffusion of nutrients between the transplanted cells and brain cells, become vascularized, and then disappear, obviating concerns about long-term biocompatibility.

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