Carotid Artery Occlusion

Unilateral carotid artery occlusion in most animals does not lead to ischemic changes unless combined with severe hypotension (19) or asphyxia (20). The same procedure, however, leads to even fatal strokes in gerbils, as the gerbil lacks a functioning Circle of Willis (21,22) and, therefore, gerbil cerebrovascular anatomy is different from human anatomy. Furthermore, the gerbil focal brain ischemia models present several other disadvantages: (i) not all animals develop an infarction (22), (ii) many animals with an infarction develop seizures (23 ), ( iii) the body temperature decreases too easily, and (iv) blood sampling is technically extremely difficult because of the small size (50-80 g) of adult gerbils.

The unilateral carotid artery occlusion model can also be applied in monkeys and dogs, in which the anterior communicating and posterior communicating arteries are ligated first and the common carotid artery (CCA) is subsequently ligated to produce focal cerebral ischemia (24,25). Finally, SHRs develop large infarctions upon bilateral CCA occlusion (11). CCA occlusion models pose no advantages over MCAO models and are seldom used.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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