Introduction

Experimental study of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in animal models has increased dramatically in the last several years. A PubMed search on January 1, 2005, for articles with the keywords "intracerebral hemorrhage" or "hematoma" and "animals" generated almost 300 references written since 1968. Two-thirds of these reports appeared in the last 5 years. These citations by researchers worldwide demonstrate a wide range of investigations examining all aspects of the disorder. The importance of experimental animal models for ICH research is that they permit a detailed examination of the pathophysiologic, biochemical, and molecular processes, as well as the mechanisms underlying brain tissue injury. They also enable testing of new pharmacologic and surgical therapies.

A comprehensive review of experimental ICH models was published by Kaufman and Schochet in 1992 (1). In 2002, we published an updated review (2). Since then, several reports that describe new models of ICH in the mouse have appeared (3,4). In addition, recent reports have described interesting new findings using knockout mice, such as the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9-deficient mouse (5) . Thiex et al. (6 ) examined the extent of edema formation in a murine model of collagenase-induced ICH, which included recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA)-deficient and wild-type mice. Interestingly, a new mouse model has been reported in which mouse embryos genetically null for all a-V-integrins develop ICH due to defective interactions between blood vessels and brain parenchymal cells (7). Several other recent studies have reported on new ICH treatments in animal models that test local (8) and global (9) brain hypothermia and the use of glutamate receptor antagonists (10), a statin (11), a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (12), and metalloporphyrin heme oxygenase inhibitors (13-15). Another group (16) reported that intraventricular transplantation of embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural stem cells in rats with ICH generated ES-derived neurons and astrocytes around the hematoma cavities. The transplants were performed 7 days after the ICH, and 28 days later, ES-derived neurons and astrocytes could be detected in all 10 rats that received grafts.

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