Posterior Cerebral Circulation Models

Most focal ischemia models have concentrated on MCA territory ischemia. However, a few other models were designed for ischemia within the posterior parts of the brain.

Basilar artery occlusion combined with bilateral carotid artery occlusion in the rat was first developed in 1985 (122) as a global brain ischemia model and was further refined in 1991 (123). In this model, a single-point occlusion of the basilar artery, regardless of the location of the occlusion, did not produce infarction and was well tolerated by the rats (123). Two-point occlusion of the basilar artery led to small and variable-sized infarctions within the brain stem which were also well tolerated (123). Intracranial administration of picomole amounts of endothelin-1 was found to induce severe brain stem ischemia in the conscious rat, and CBF could be reduced by up to 85% in the lower brain stem and cerebellum (124). Catheterization of the left vertebral artery (VA) of the rabbit and delivery of a 0.1-cc clot by this route resulted in a clot lodged at the juncture of the basilar artery tip (125). Thromboembolic models are technically demanding and might not be feasible to develop in small-sized animals but might be more appropriate to develop in larger animals. Even though not in widespread use, basilar artery occlusion models might be helpful in mimicking certain clinical conditions.

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