1. Astrup J, Siesjo BK, Symon L. Thresholds in cerebral ischemia—the ischemic penumbra. Stroke 1981; 12:723-725.
  2. Lawes CM, Bennett DA, Feigin VL, Rodgers A. Blood pressure and stroke: an overview of published reviews. Stroke 2004; 35:776-785.
  3. Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 2002; 360:1903-1913.
  4. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2005 Update. American Heart Association, 2004.
  5. Ahmed N, Wahlgren NG. Effects of blood pressure lowering in the acute phase of total anterior circulation infarcts and other stroke subtypes. Cerebrovasc Dis 2003; 15:235-243.
  6. Ahmed N , Nasman P , Wahlgren NG . Effect of intravenous nimodipine on blood pressure and outcome after acute stroke. Stroke 2000; 31:1250-1255.
  7. Fischberg GM, Lozano E, Rajamani K, Ameriso S, Fisher MJ. Stroke precipitated by moderate blood pressure reduction. J Emerg Med 2000; 19:339-346.
  8. Vemmos KN, Tsivgoulis G, Spengos K, et al. U-shaped relationship between mortality and admission blood pressure in patients with acute stroke. J Intern Med 2004; 255:257-265.
  9. Castillo J, Leira R, Garcia MM, Serena J, Blanco M, Davalos A. Blood pressure decrease during the acute phase of ischemic stroke is associated with brain injury and poor stroke outcome. Stroke 2004; 35:520-526.
  10. Vlcek M , Schillinger M , Lang W , Lalouschek W , Bur A , Hirschl MM . Association between course of blood pressure within the first 24 hours and functional recovery after acute ischemic stroke. Ann Emerg Med 2003; 42:619-626.
  11. Oliveira-Filho J, Silva SC, Trabuco CC, Pedreira BB, Sousa EU, Bacellar A. Detrimental effect of blood pressure reduction in the first 24 hours of acute stroke onset. Neurology 2003; 61:1047-1051.
  12. Semplicini A, Maresca A, Boscolo G, et al. Hypertension in acute ischemic stroke: a compensatory mechanism or an additional damaging factor? Arch Intern Med 2003; 163:211-216.
  13. Leonardi-Bee J , Bath PM , Phillips SJ , Sandercock PA . Blood pressure and clinical outcomes in the international stroke trial. Stroke 2002; 33:1315-1320.
  14. Vemmos KN , Tsivgoulis G , Spengos K , et al. Association between 24-h blood pressure monitoring variables and brain oedema in patients with hyperacute stroke. J Hypertens 2003; 21:2167-2173.
  15. Novak V , Chowdhary A , Farrar B , et al. Altered cerebral vasoregulation in hypertension and stroke. Neurology 2003; 60:1657-1663.
  16. Gilligan AK , Markus R , Read S , et al. Baseline blood pressure but not early computed tomography changes predicts major hemorrhage after streptokinase in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2002 ; 33:2236-2242.

Tanne D, Kasner SE, Demchuk AM, et al. Markers of increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy for acute ischemic stroke in clinical practice: the multicenter rt-PA stroke survey. Circulation 2002; 105:1679-1685.

Gurwitz JH, Gore JM, Goldberg RJ, et al. Risk for intracranial hemorrhage after tissue plasminogen activator treatment for acute myocardial infarction. Participants in the national registry of myocar-dial infarction 2. Ann Intern Med 1998; 129:597-604.

Aylward PE, Wilcox RG, Horgan JH, et al. Relation of increased arterial blood pressure to mortality and stroke in the context of contemporary thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. A randomized trial. Gusto-i investigators. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125:891-900.

Chileuitt L, Leber K, McCalden T, Weinstein PR. Induced hypertension during ischemia reduces infarct area after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Surg Neurol 1996; 46:229-234. Smrcka M, Ogilvy CS, Crow RJ, Maynard KI, Kawamata T, Ames A 3rd. Induced hypertension improves regional blood flow and protects against infarction during focal ischemia: time course of changes in blood flow measured by laser Doppler imaging. Neurosurgery 1998; 42:617-624; discussion 624-615.

Rordorf G, Koroshetz WJ, Ezzeddine MA, Segal AZ, Buonanno FS. A pilot study of drug-induced hypertension for treatment of acute stroke. Neurology 2001; 56:1210-1213.

Hillis AE, Ulatowski JA, Barker PB, et al. A pilot randomized trial of induced blood pressure elevation: effects on function and focal perfusion in acute and subacute stroke . Cerebrovasc Dis 2003; 16:236-246.

Adams H, Adams R, Del Zoppo G, Goldstein LB. Guidelines for the early management of patients with ischemic stroke: 2005 guidelines update. A Scientific Statement from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2005; 36:916-923. Sato M, Pawlik G, Heiss WD. Comparative studies of regional CNS blood flow autoregulation and responses to CO2 in the cat. Effects of altering arterial blood pressure and PACO2 on RCBF of cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Stroke 1984; 15:91-97.

Dettmers C, Young A, Rommel T, Hartmann A, Weingart O, Baron JC. CO2 reactivity in the ischaemic core, penumbra, and normal tissue 6 hours after acute MCA-occlusion in primates. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1993; 125:150-155.

Olsen TS , Larsen B , Herning M , Skriver EB , Lassen NA . Blood flow and vascular reactivity in collaterally perfused brain tissue. Evidence of an ischemic penumbra in patients with acute stroke. Stroke 1983; 14:332-341.

Ronning OM, Guldvog B. Should stroke victims routinely receive supplemental oxygen? A quasi-randomized controlled trial. Stroke 1999; 30:2033-2037.

Rusyniak DE , Kirk MA , May JD , et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in acute ischemic stroke: results of the hyperbaric oxygen in acute ischemic stroke trial pilot study. Stroke 2003; 34:571-574. Kawai N , Keep RF , Betz AL . Hyperglycemia and the vascular effects of cerebral ischemia. Stroke 1997; 28:149-154.

Sieber FE, Traystman RJ. Special issues: glucose and the brain. Crit Care Med 1992; 20:104-114. De Courten-Myers GM , Kleinholz M , Holm P , et al. Hemorrhagic infarct conversion in experimental stroke. Ann Emerg Med 1992; 21:120-126.

Bruno A, Biller J, Adams HP Jr., et al. Acute blood glucose level and outcome from ischemic stroke. Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) investigators. Neurology 1999; 52:280-284. Bruno A , Levine SR , Frankel MR , et al. Admission glucose level and clinical outcomes in the NINDS rt-PA stroke trial. Neurology 2002; 59:669-674.

Baird TA , Parsons MW , Phanh T , et al. Persistent poststroke hyperglycemia is independently associated with infarct expansion and worse clinical outcome. Stroke 2003; 34:2208-2214. Parsons MW , Barber PA , Desmond PM , et al. Acute hyperglycemia adversely affects stroke outcome: a magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy study. Ann Neurol 2002; 52:20-28. Weir CJ , Murray GD , Dyker AG , Lees KR . Is hyperglycaemia an independent predictor of poor outcome after acute stroke? Results of a long-term follow up study. Br Med J 1997; 314:1303-1306. Demchuk AM , Morgenstern LB , Krieger DW , et al. Serum glucose level and diabetes predict tissue plasminogen activator- related intracerebral hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 1999; 30:34-39.

Kase CS , Furlan AJ , Wechsler LR , et al. Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial. Neurology 2001; 57:1603-1610.

Grotta JC , Welch KM , Fagan SC , et al. Clinical deterioration following improvement in the NINDS rt-PA stroke trial. Stroke 2001 ; 32 : 661 - 668 .

Berger L, Hakim AM. The association of hyperglycemia with cerebral edema in stroke. Stroke 1986; 17:865-871.

Li PA, Shuaib A, Miyashita H, He QP, Siesjo BK, Warner DS. Hyperglycemia enhances extracellular glutamate accumulation in rats subjected to forebrain ischemia. Stroke 2000; 31:183-192.

  1. van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1359-1367.
  2. Gray CS, Hildreth AJ, Alberti GK, O'Connell JE. Poststroke hyperglycemia: natural history and immediate management. Stroke 2004; 35:122-126.
  3. Bruno A, Saha C, Williams LS, Shankar R. IV insulin during acute cerebral infarction in diabetic patients. Neurology 2004; 62:1441-1442.
  4. Sundararajan S, Gamboa JL, Victor NA, Wanderi EW, Lust WD, Landreth GE. Peroxisome prolif-erator-activated receptor-gamma ligands reduce inflammation and infarction size in transient focal ischemia. Neuroscience 2005; 130:685-696.
  5. Azzimondi G, Bassein L, Nonino F, et al. Fever in acute stroke worsens prognosis. A prospective study. Stroke 1995; 26:2040-2043.
  6. Castillo J, Davalos A, Marrugat J, Noya M. Timing for fever-related brain damage in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 1998; 29:2455-2460.
  7. Hajat C , Hajat S , Sharma P . Effects of poststroke pyrexia on stroke outcome: a meta-analysis of studies in patients. Stroke 2000; 31:410-414.
  8. Kammersgaard LP , Jorgensen HS , Rungby JA , et al. Admission body temperature predicts long-term mortality after acute stroke: the Copenhagen stroke study. Stroke 2002; 33:1759-1762.
  9. Reith J, Jorgensen HS, Pedersen PM, et al. Body temperature in acute stroke: relation to stroke severity, infarct size, mortality, and outcome. Lancet 1996; 347:422-425.
  10. Schwab S , Schwarz S , Aschoff A , Keller E , Hacke W . Moderate hypothermia and brain temperature in patients with severe middle cerebral artery infarction. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1998; 71:131-134.
  11. Hagerdal M , Harp J , Nilsson L , Siesjo BK . The effect of induced hypothermia upon oxygen consumption in the rat brain. J Neurochem 1975; 24:311-316.
  12. Klementavicius R, Nemoto EM, Yonas H. The Q10 ratio for basal cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen in rats. J Neurosurg 1996; 85:482-487.
  13. Michenfelder JD , Milde JH . The relationship among canine brain temperature, metabolism, and function during hypothermia. Anesthesiology 1991; 75:130-136.
  14. Huang YH , Haegerstrand A , Frostegard J . Effects of in vitro hyperthermia on proliferative responses and lymphocyte activity. Clin Exp Immunol 1996; 103:61-66.
  15. Wang WC, Goldman LM, Schleider DM, et al. Fever-range hyperthermia enhances l-selectin-dependent adhesion of lymphocytes to vascular endothelium. J Immunol 1998; 160:961-969.
  16. Castillo J , Davalos A , Noya M. Aggravation of acute ischemic stroke by hyperthermia is related to an excitotoxic mechanism. Cerebrovasc Dis 1999; 9:22-27.
  17. Li PA , He QP , Miyashita H , Howllet W , Siesjo BK , Shuaib A . Hypothermia ameliorates ischemic brain damage and suppresses the release of extracellular amino acids in both normo- and hypergly-cemic subjects. Exp Neurol 1999; 158:242-253.
  18. Berger C , Schabitz WR , Georgiadis D , Steiner T , Aschoff A , Schwab S . Effects of hypothermia on excitatory amino acids and metabolism in stroke patients: a microdialysis study. Stroke 2002 ; 33 : 519 - 524 .
  19. Corbett D, Hamilton M, Colbourne F. Persistent neuroprotection with prolonged postischemic hypothermia in adult rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Exp Neurol 2000; 163:200-206.
  20. Dietrich WD , Busto R , Valdes I , Loor Y. Effects of normothermic versus mild hyperthermic forebrain ischemia in rats. Stroke 1990; 21:1318-1325.
  21. Kawai N , Okauchi M , Morisaki K , Nagao S . Effects of delayed intraischemic and postischemic hypothermia on a focal model of transient cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke 2000; 31:1982-1989; discussion 1989 .
  22. Schwab S , Schwarz S , Spranger M , Keller E , Bertram M , Hacke W . Moderate hypothermia in the treatment of patients with severe middle cerebral artery infarction. Stroke 1998; 29:2461-2466.
  23. Bernard SA , Gray TW , Buist MD , et al. Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:557-563.
  24. The Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest Study Group. Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:549-556.
  25. Enlimomab Acute Stroke Trial Investigators. Use of anti-ICAM-1 therapy in ischemic stroke: results of the Enlimomab acute stroke trial. Neurology 2001; 57:1428-1434.
  26. Davenport RJ, Dennis MS, Wellwood I, Warlow CP. Complications after acute stroke. Stroke 1996; 27:415-420.
  27. Hilker R , Poetter C , Findeisen N , et al. Nosocomial pneumonia after acute stroke: implications for neurological intensive care medicine. Stroke 2003; 34:975-981.
  28. Langhorne P , Stott DJ , Robertson L , et al. Medical complications after stroke: a multicenter study. Stroke 2000; 31:1223-1229.
  29. Georgilis K, Plomaritoglou A, Dafni U, Bassiakos Y, Vemmos K. Aetiology of fever in patients with acute stroke. J Intern Med 1999; 246:203-209.
  30. Grau AJ, Buggle F, Schnitzler P, Spiel M, Lichy C, Hacke W. Fever and infection early after ischemic stroke. J Neurol Sci 1999; 171:115-120.
  31. Johnston KC, Li JY, Lyden PD, et al. Medical and neurological complications of ischemic stroke: experience from the RANTTAS trial. RANTTAS investigators. Stroke 1998; 29:447-453.
  32. Furuya K, Takeda H, Azhar S, et al. Examination of several potential mechanisms for the negative outcome in a clinical stroke trial of Enlimomab, a murine anti-human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibody: a bedside-to-bench study. Stroke 2001; 32:2665-2674.
  33. Vuorte J, Lindsberg PJ, Kaste M, et al. Anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody r6.5 (Enlimomab) promotes activation of neutrophils in whole blood. J Immunol 1999; 162:2353-2357.
  34. Baena RC, Busto R, Dietrich WD, Globus MY, Ginsberg MD. Hyperthermia delayed by 24 hours aggravates neuronal damage in rat hippocampus following global ischemia. Neurology 1997; 48:768-773.
  35. Kim Y , Busto R , Dietrich WD , Kraydieh S , Ginsberg MD . Delayed postischemic hyperthermia in awake rats worsens the histopathological outcome of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 1996; 27:2274-2280; discussion 2281.
  36. Dietrich WD , Busto R , Halley M , Valdes I. The importance of brain temperature in alterations of the blood-brain barrier following cerebral ischemia. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1990; 49:486-497.
  37. Barone FC, Arvin B, White RF, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha. A mediator of focal ischemic brain injury. Stroke 1997; 28:1233-1244.
  38. Claudio L, Kress Y, Factor J, Brosnan CF. Mechanisms of edema formation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The contribution of inflammatory cells. Am J Pathol 1990; 137 : 1033 - 1045 .
  39. Touzani O, Boutin H, Chuquet J, Rothwell N. Potential mechanisms of interleukin-1 involvement in cerebral ischaemia. J Neuroimmunol 1999; 100:203-215.
  40. Jeohn GH , Kim WG , Hong JS . Time dependency of the action of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma-induced neuronal cell death in murine primary neuron-glia co-cultures. Brain Res 2000; 880:173-177.
  41. Hanisch UK, Neuhaus J, Quirion R, Kettenmann H. Neurotoxicity induced by interleukin-2: involvement of infiltrating immune cells. Synapse 1996; 24:104-114.
  42. Prass K, Meisel C, Hoflich C, et al. Stroke-induced immunodeficiency promotes spontaneous bacterial infections and is mediated by sympathetic activation reversal by poststroke T helper cell type 1-like immunostimulation. J Exp Med 2003; 198:725-736.
  43. Meisel C, Prass K, Braun J, et al. Preventive antibacterial treatment improves the general medical and neurological outcome in a mouse model of stroke. Stroke 2004; 35:2-6.
  44. Chamorro A, Obach V, Vargas M, et al. The early systemic prophylaxis of infection after stroke study: final results (abstr). Stroke 2005; 36:420.
  45. Dexter F, Hindman BJ. Effect of haemoglobin concentration on brain oxygenation in focal stroke: a mathematical modelling study. Br J Anaesth 1997; 79:346-351.
  46. The Hemodilution in Stroke Study Group . Hypervolemic hemodilution treatment of acute stroke . Results of a randomized multicenter trial using pentastarch. Stroke 1989; 20:317-323.
  47. Koller M, Haenny P, Hess K, Weniger D, Zangger P. Adjusted hypervolemic hemodilution in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 1990; 21:1429-1434.
  48. Strand T, Asplund K, Eriksson S, Hagg E, Lithner F, Wester PO. A randomized controlled trial of hemodilution therapy in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 1984; 15:980-989.
  49. Scandinavian Stroke Study Group. Multicenter trial of hemodilution in acute ischemic stroke. I. Results in the total patient population. Stroke 1987; 18:691-699.
  50. Italian Acute Stroke Study Group. The Italian hemodilution trial in acute stroke. Stroke 1987; 18:670-676.
  51. Italian Acute Stroke Study Group. Haemodilution in acute stroke: results of the Italian haemodilution trial. Lancet 1988; 1:318-321.
  52. Scandinavian Stroke Study Group. Multicenter trial of hemodilution in acute ischemic stroke. Results of subgroup analyses. Stroke 1988; 19:464-471.
  53. Rudolf J. Hydroxyethyl starch for hypervolemic hemodilution in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a randomized, placebo-controlled phase II safety study. Cerebrovasc Dis 2002; 1433-41.
  54. Aichner FT, Fazekas F, Brainin M, Polz W, Mamoli B, Zeiler K. Hypervolemic hemodilution in acute ischemic stroke: the multicenter Austrian hemodilution stroke trial (MAHST). Stroke 1998; 29:743-749.
  55. Asplund K. Haemodilution for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002:CD000103.
  56. Kwaan HC, Wang J. Hyperviscosity in polycythemia vera and other red cell abnormalities. Semin Thromb Hemost 2003; 29:451-458.
  57. Lahtinen R, Kuikka J. Cerebral blood flow in polycythaemia vera. Ann Clin Res 1983; 15:200-202.
  58. CAST (Chinese Acute Stroke Trial) Collaborative Group. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of early aspirin use in 20,000 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Lancet 1997; 349:1641-1649.
  59. International Stroke Trial Collaborative Group. The International Stroke Trial (IST). A randomised trial of aspirin, subcutaneous heparin, both, or neither among 19435 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Lancet 1997; 349:1569-1581.
  60. Counsell C , Sandercock P . Low-molecular-weight heparins or heparinoids versus standard unfrac-tionated heparin for acute ischemic stroke (cochrane review). Stroke 2002; 33:1925-1926.
  61. The Publications Committee for the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) Investigators. Low molecular weight heparinoid, org 10172 (danaparoid), and outcome after acute ischemic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. JAM A 1998; 279:1265-1272.
  62. Bath PM , Lindenstrom E , Boysen G , et al. Tinzaparin in acute ischaemic stroke (TAIST): a randomised aspirin-controlled trial. Lancet 2001; 358:702-710.
  63. Diener HC, Ringelstein EB, von Kummer R, et al. Treatment of acute ischemic stroke with the low-molecular-weight heparin certoparin: results of the TOPAS trial. Therapy of Patients with Acute Stroke (Topas) Investigators. Stroke 2001; 32:22-29.
  64. Haley EC Jr , Kassell NF , Torner JC . Failure of heparin to prevent progression in progressing ischemic infarction. Stroke 1988; 19:10-14.
  65. Gubitz G, Sandercock P, Counsell C. Anticoagulants for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD000024.
  66. Hart RG, Palacio S, Pearce LA. Atrial fibrillation, stroke, and acute antithrombotic therapy: analysis of randomized clinical trials. Stroke 2002; 33:2722-2727.
  67. de Bruijn SF , Stam J . Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of anticoagulant treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin for cerebral sinus thrombosis. Stroke 1999; 30:484-488.
  68. Brucker AB, Vollert-Rogenhofer H, Wagner M, et al. Heparin treatment in acute cerebral sinus venous thrombosis: a retrospective clinical and MR analysis of 42 cases. Cerebrovasc Dis 1998; 8:331-337.
  69. Helpern J A, Vande Linde AM, Welch KM, et al. Acute elevation and recovery of intracellular [Mg2+] following human focal cerebral ischemia. Neurology 1993; 43:1577-1581.
  70. Izumi Y , Roussel S , Pinard E , Seylaz J . Reduction of infarct volume by magnesium after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1991; 11:1025-1030.
  71. Lin JY , Chung SY , Lin MC , Cheng FC . Effects of magnesium sulfate on energy metabolites and glutamate in the cortex during focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in the gerbil monitored by a dual-probe microdialysis technique. Life Sci 2002; 71:803-811.
  72. Zarei MM, Dani JA. Ionic permeability characteristics of the n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor channel. J Gen Physiol 1994; 103:231-248.
  73. Wang Y, Santini F, Qin K, Huang CY. A Mg(2+)-dependent, Ca(2+)-inhibitable serine/threonine protein phosphatase from bovine brain. J Biol Chem 1995; 270:25607-25612.
  74. Muir KW , Lees KR , Ford I , Davis S . Magnesium for acute stroke (intravenous magnesium efficacy in stroke trial): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 363:439-445.
  75. Saver JL, Kidwell C, Eckstein M, Starkman S. Prehospital neuroprotective therapy for acute stroke: results of the field administration of stroke therapy-magnesium (FAST-MAG) pilot trial. Stroke 2004; 35:e106-e108.
  76. Lees KR, Zivin JA, Ashwood T. et al. NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke N Engl. J. Med. 2006; 354:588-600.
  77. Stern WE. Intracranial fluid dynamics: the relationship of intracranial pressure to the monro-kellie doctrine and the reliability of pressure assessment. J R Coll Surg Edinb 1963; 168:18-36.
  78. Sklar FH , Elashvili I . The pressure-volume function of brain elasticity. Physiological considerations and clinical applications. J Neurosurg 1977; 47:670-679.
  79. Derouesne C, Cambon H, Yelnik A, Duyckaerts C, Hauw JJ. Infarcts in the middle cerebral artery territory. Pathological study of the mechanisms of death. Acta Neurol Scand 1993; 87:361-366.
  80. Hacke W, Schwab S, Horn M, Spranger M, De Georgia M, von Kummer R. A 'malignant' middle cerebral artery territory infarction: clinical course and prognostic signs . Arch Neurol 1996; 53 : 309- 315 .
  81. Wijdicks EF , Diringer MN . Middle cerebral artery territory infarction and early brain swelling: progression and effect of age on outcome. Mayo Clin Proc 1998; 73:829-836.
  82. Kasner SE , Demchuk AM , Berrouschot J , et al. Predictors of fatal brain edema in massive hemispheric ischemic stroke. Stroke 2001; 32:2117-2123.
  83. Cruz-Flores S , Thompson DW , Boiser JR . Massive cerebral edema after recanalization post-thrombolysis. J Neuroimaging 2001; 11:447-451.
  84. Sakamaki M , Igarashi H , Nishiyama Y , et al. Effect of glycerol on ischemic cerebral edema assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurol Sci 2003 ; 209 : 69 - 74 .
  85. Bereczki D, Liu M, do Prado GF, Fekete I. Mannitol for acute stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001 : CD001153 .

Schwarz S, Schwab S, Bertram M, Aschoff A, Hacke W. Effects of hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch solution and mannitol in patients with increased intracranial pressure after stroke . Stroke 1998; 29:1550-1555.

Berger C, Sakowitz OW, Kiening KL, Schwab S. Neurochemical monitoring of glycerol therapy in patients with ischemic brain edema. Stroke 2005; 36:e4-e6.

Bhardwaj A, Ulatowski JA. Hypertonic saline solutions in brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2004; 10:126-131.

Zuliani G, Cherubini A, Atti AR, et al. Prescription of anti-oedema agents and short-term mortality in older patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Drugs Aging 2004; 21:273-278.

Qizilbash N, Lewington SL, Lopez-Arrieta JM. Corticosteroids for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002:CD000064.

Milhaud D, Thouvenot E, Heroum C, Escuret E. Prolonged moderate hypothermia in massive hemispheric infarction: clinical experience. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2005; 17:49-53. Forderreuther S, Straube A. Indomethacin reduces CSF pressure in intracranial hypertension. Neurology 2000; 55:1043-1045.

Schwarz S, Bertram M, Aschoff A, Schwab S, Hacke W. Indomethacin for brain edema following stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 1999; 9:248-250.

Harrigan MR, Tuteja S, Neudeck BL. Indomethacin in the management of elevated intracranial pressure: a review. J Neurotrauma 1997; 14:637-650.

Jensen K, Ohrstrom J, Cold GE, Astrup J. The effects of indomethacin on intracranial pressure, cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolism in patients with severe head injury and intracranial hypertension. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1991; 108:116-121.

Schwab S , Aschoff A , Spranger M , Albert F , Hacke W . The value of intracranial pressure monitoring in acute hemispheric stroke. Neurology 1996; 47:393-398.

Frank JI . Large hemispheric infarction, deterioration, and intracranial pressure . Neurology 1995 ; 45:1286-1290.

Muizelaar JP , Marmarou A , Ward JD , et al. Adverse effects of prolonged hyperventilation in patients with severe head injury: a randomized clinical trial. J Neurosurg 1991; 75:731-739.

Qureshi AI , Geocadin RG , Suarez JI , Ulatowski JA . Long-term outcome after medical reversal of transtentorial herniation in patients with supratentorial mass lesions. Crit Care Med 2000 ;


Schwab S , Steiner T , Aschoff A , et al. Early hemicraniectomy in patients with complete middle cerebral artery infarction. Stroke 1998; 29:1888-1893.

Georgiadis D , Schwarz S , Aschoff A , Schwab S . Hemicraniectomy and moderate hypothermia in patients with severe ischemic stroke. Stroke 2002; 33:1584-1588.

Curry WT Jr., Sethi MK, Ogilvy CS, Carter BS. Factors associated with outcome after hemi-craniectomy for large middle cerebral artery territory infarction. Neurosurgery 2005; 56:681-692; discussion 681-692.

Fandino J, Keller E, Barth A, Landolt H, Yonekawa Y, Seiler RW. Decompressive craniotomy after middle cerebral artery infarction. Retrospective analysis of patients treated in three centres in Switzerland. Swiss Med Wkly 2004; 134:423-429.

Foerch C, Lang JM, Krause J, et al. Functional impairment, disability, and quality of life outcome after decompressive hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. J Neurosurg 2004; 101:248-254.

Gupta R , Connolly ES , Mayer S , Elkind MS . Hemicraniectomy for massive middle cerebral artery territory infarction: a systematic review. Stroke 2004; 35:539-543.

Leonhardt G, Wilhelm H, Doerfler A. et al. Clinical outcome and neuropsychological deficits after right decompressive hemicraniectomy in MCA infarction. J Neurol 2002; 249:1433-1440. Holtkamp M , Buchheim K , Unterberg A , et al. Hemicraniectomy in elderly patients with space occupying media infarction: improved survival but poor functional outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 2001; 70:226-228.

Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002 : CD000197 . Rudd AG , Hoffman A , Irwin P , Lowe D , Pearson MG . Stroke unit care and outcome: results from the 2001 National Sentinel Audit of Stroke (England, Wales, and Northern Ireland). Stroke 2005; 36:103-106.

Cadilhac DA , Ibrahim J , Pearce DC , et al. Multicenter comparison of processes of care between stroke units and conventional care wards in Australia. Stroke 2004; 35:1035-1040.

Sulter G , Elting JW , Langedijk M , Maurits NM , De Keyser J . Admitting acute ischemic stroke patients to a stroke care monitoring unit versus a conventional stroke unit: a randomized pilot study. Stroke 2003; 34:101-104.

Evans A , Harraf F , Donaldson N , Kalra L. Randomized controlled study of stroke unit care versus stroke team care in different stroke subtypes. Stroke 2002; 33:449-455.

  1. Indredavik B, Bakke F, Slordah! SA, Rokseth R, Haheim LL. Stroke unit treatment. 10-year follow-up. Stroke 1999; 30:1524-1527.
  2. Indredavik B , Bakke F , Slordahl SA , Rokseth R , Haheim LL . Treatment in a combined acute and rehabilitation stroke unit: which aspects are most important? Stroke 1999; 30:917-923.
  3. Jorgensen HS, Kammersgaard LP, Nakayama H, et al. Treatment and rehabilitation on a stroke unit improves 5-year survival. A community-based study. Stroke 1999; 30:930-933.
  4. Ronning OM, Guldvog B. Stroke units versus general medical wards. I. Twelve- and eighteen-month survival: a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke 1998; 29:58-62.
  5. Lassen NA Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in man. Physical Rev. 39:183-238, 1959.
  6. Symon L, Held K, Dorsch NWC. A study of regional autoregulation in the cerebral circulation to increase perfusion pressure in normocapnia and hypercapnia. Stroke 4:139-147, 1973.
Metabolism Masterclass

Metabolism Masterclass

Are You Sick And Tired Of All The Fat-Burning Tricks And Trends That Just Don’t Deliver? Well, Get Set To Discover The Easy, Safe, Fast, And Permanent Way To Mega-Charge Your Metabolism And Lose Excess Fat Once And For All! This Weight Blasting Method Is Easy AND Natural… And Will Give You The Hot Body And Killer Energy Levels You’ve Been Dreaming Of.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment