Secretion of Growth Factors and Trophic Factors from Transplanted Cells

Cells transplanted within cerebral tissue or within the microvasculature of injured brain, such as MSCs, behave as small molecular "factories" and produce an array of growth and trophic factors (25), and the effects of these trophic factors on brain tissue rapidly and effectively promote restoration of function. The trophic and growth factors produced by MSCs include BDNF, hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) (62). Likely, it is the effect of a variety of factors, and not that of a particular growth factor, that facilitates the restorative function.

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