Eyelids

The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal

The Scar Solution Book

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Dimitrije E. Panfilov

The first type of skin to become wrinkled is the skin of the eyelids, because it is the thinnest skin of the entire human body. When we communicate with each other, we usually look each other in the eye. Lax eyelids do not allow the inner energy of a person, which is possibly present to a large extent, to become apparent; such a person's capability and even vitality go unrecognized.

Excessive reading, PC work, watching TV, working under neon-light illumination, and hereditary factors play a role in this process. The eyelids can reveal changes associated with disorders of the kidneys, heart, and thyroid gland, or which become apparent from alcohol or drug abuse. The swollen eyes of someone with a psychosomatic disorder may reflect "un-cried tears", originating from unexpressed emotions. An eyelid lift will therefore convey the impression of an altogether much fresher person.

With its relatively low cost and little effort, this operation has a relatively high effect and is therefore very popular, not only amongst women. It is the most frequent aesthetic surgery performed for outpatients and also the most common aesthetic procedure which plastic surgeons undergo themselves. The author of this book is not an exception to this rule.

There are three indications in periorbital rejuvenation:

  1. Ptotic "baggy" upper eyelids
  2. Puffy lower eyelids
  3. Multiple fine wrinkles in the lateral part of the orbita: crow's-feet

What are criteria of aesthetically pleasing eyes?:

  • Rima oculli (palprebral fissure) should be vertically between 12-14 mm in the adult.
  • The horizontal eye axis (distance between the commissures) should be between 28 and 30 mm.
  • The lateral commissure should be positioned superior to the medial commissure.
Skin Overlapping Stitches
Fig. 33.1. a The patient is looking at the root of the surgeon's nose. The overlapping skin has been marked. b Closed eyes. c Semilunar excision area - completed markings. d Skin excisions and e pull-out running intradermal sutures
Aesthetically Pleasing Nose
Fig. 33.2. a Excess skin check with T-forceps. b Precise excision with radiofrequency waves (4.0 MHz). c After 10 days the scar is still visible, but could be hidden with cosmetic camouflage. d Unobtrusive scarring after 3 months
Rasa1 Mutation
Fig. 33.3. a Central fat pad and b medial fat pad to be clamped with forceps, cut off, and coagulated for haemostasis
  • The highest point of upper-eyelid curvature is slightly nasal from the pupil.
  • The lowest portion of the lower-eyelid curvature is slightly temporal from the limbus.

Before starting to do eyelid surgery, we have to recapitulate many anatomical details. To understand the physiology of eyelids we should realize the complexity of the orbicularis oculi muscle. After myocardium muscle, this is the second-most active muscle of the human body-it contracts on average every 4 s when we are awake. It is the mechanical protector of the eyeball (corneal reflex) and the collector and distributor of lacrimal secretion. Owing to its delicate syn-chronic movements, this muscle is the protagonist of fine mimic expressions.

Some surgical techniques produce dysfunction of the orbicularis oculi muscle. In upper eyelids we also

Lacrimal Gland Prolapse
Fig. 33.4. a Pleasing eye: palpebral fissure: 12-14 mm horizontal eye axis: 28-30 mm. b Sometimes in the lateral part of the upper orbita the lacrimal gland could show prolapse. It should be repositioned and closed by septal sutures
Tunge Yelokk

Fig. 33.5. a Only upper blepharoplasty produces b a more awaked, fresh appearance. c Overlapping upper eyelids. d Three weeks after upper blepharoplasty. e "Dramatic" improvement after 8 weeks

Pictures Upper Eyelid Surgery Sutures
Fig. 33.6. a The skin should be carefully separated from underlying fibres of orbicularis oculi muscle. b More skin excision from the lateral triangle than c from the subciliar region. d Removal of central extruded fat pad

sometimes preserve fibres of the orbicularis oculi muscle to restore the fullness of them, but in the lower eyelids nowadays we almost regularly preserve them to save the innervation which comes from temporo-frontal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve. Some 15 years ago it was usual to take out a strip of orbicularis oculi muscle fibres in lower blepharoplas-ty. Today it would be done just in the case of muscle hypertrophy that is obvious preoperatively.

Today's trend is "less is not more but very often more than enough". Or to use a German saying: "Enough is better than too much." We should operate on eyelids as conservatively as possible, that is the advice of Glenn Jelks from New York.

For lower blepharoplasty the special "no-touch technique" has been developed. "No touch" is related to the orbicularis oculi muscle and its innervation. Access to the infraorbital herniated fat should be done transconjuctivally - through a 1-cm-long incision parallel to the lower eyelid rim and 3 mm below it. The fat pads could be repositioned or carefully reduced. The excess skin should be removed superficially without touching the fibres of the orbicularis oculi muscle from both sides!

Suboricularis Oculi Fat Pad

Fig. 33.7. a Three extruded fat pads from medial, central, and lateral compartments of the lower eyelid. b Removed skin and fat pads of upper (above) and lower (below) eyelids. c Skin closure with 6-0 monofilament nylon pull-out sutures

Hemorrhoid Surgery Before And After
Fig. 33.8. a "Baggy" upper eyelids and negative vector of lower eyelid cheek junction. b Much smoother appearance postopera-tively

Photographic documentation pre- and postoperatively is very important:

  • For analysis: preoperatively what should be done, postoperatively to check the results achieved
  • To show the change (improvement) to the patient
  • For scientific reasons
  • Sometimes for forensic reasons

There are six standard views which can be recommended: (1) straight look into the objective - open eyes, (2) closed eyes, (3) look 45° above and (4) 45° below the horizontal line, (5) left profile, and (6) right profile.

The eyebrow position can influence the upper-eyelid appearance through medial, lateral, or complete brow ptosis. Upper-eyelid ageing may include medial bags, lateral bags, dermatochalasis, and levator weakness or dehiscence.

Orbicularis Oculi Muscle Hypertrophy
Fig. 33.9. a "Heavy" upper and lower eyelids due to muscle hypertrophy. b "Evil look" turns to "mild look". c Hypertrophy of orbicularis oculi muscle fibres only below. d Partial resected strip of muscle fibres of lower eyelid
Eyelid PathologyImagenes Aspecto Estetico
Fig. 33.11. a Festooned skin of lower eyelids. b Appearance 2 weeks postoperatively
Hypertrophic Orbicularis Oculi

Fig. 33.12. a Muscle fibre subcantal loop of the lower eyelid (Lassus loop) has been a prepared and b sutured to the periosteum of the upper-side orbita edge. c End of the surgery

Lower-eyelid ageing can produce skin excess, fat herniation, scleral show, orbicularis hypertrophy, and festooning.

Patient selection is very important. Good candidates have obvious deformity and psychic stability. Relative contraindications are patients with:

  • Significant orbital pathology
  • Exophtalmos
  • quot;Dry eye" syndrome
  • Unrealistic expectations

Before surgery we perform dermographic planning. First the lower incision should be marked between 9 and 13 mm above the rim, on closed eyes. Then the patient opens her/his eyes and looks at the root of our nose when we face each other symmetrically. Now we mark the corresponding point of excess skin overlapping the lower incision line. The patient closes his/her eyes again and we complete marking semilunar skin area to be excised. At the same time we mark a 24 mm incision in one of crow's-feet as access to the lower blepharoplasty, which should be 7-10 mm below the upper-eyelid incision line.

Lidstraffung Erfahrungen Fotos
Fig. 33.13. a Thirty-four year old women who worked for 10 years under neon light illumination. b Appearance 3 months postoperatively
Mini Facelift Scars

Fig. 33.14. a Septum orbitale to be sutured to the arcus mar-ginalis. b Finished suture. c In this patient on the right side the fat has been repositioned and the septum orbitale closed

(Hamra) and the left side suspended per muscle loop (Lassus). d There is no obvious difference 2 weeks postoperatively

Fig. 33.14. a Septum orbitale to be sutured to the arcus mar-ginalis. b Finished suture. c In this patient on the right side the fat has been repositioned and the septum orbitale closed

(Hamra) and the left side suspended per muscle loop (Lassus). d There is no obvious difference 2 weeks postoperatively

Doing dermographic markings in the standing position, we should remember that inexperienced plastic surgeons make usually the mistake of not excising enough skin from upper eyelids, and much worse excise too much skin from lower eyelids. Then, sometimes full skin grafts have to be inserted to mitigate the mistake. The mistake with the upper eyelids is easy to correct: just remove the small strip of still excess skin. We control the proposed skin excision by asking the patient to open and close his/her eyes several times.

With local anaesthesia and intravenous analgose-dation, we remove now sufficient redundant upper-eyelid skin; if the eyelids are "heavy" we remove also a strip of orbicularis oculi muscle and finally one to two fat pads. We should remove well-defined supra-tarsal skin so that the scar will clearly fit into the or-bitopalpebral sulcus.

Upper Blepharoplasty Techniques
Fig. 33.15. a Transconjunctival fat pad expulsion. b Squeezing a small strip of external skin has been removed and classic the fat pad with forceps, removal, and haemostasis. The patient upper blepharoplasty c before and d after "no-touch technique" of lower eyelid - only
  1. 33.16. a A lot of excess skin and fat. b Six weeks postoperatively In dark skin the ends of scars are visible longer
  2. 33.16. a A lot of excess skin and fat. b Six weeks postoperatively In dark skin the ends of scars are visible longer

The goal of lower blepharoplasty is modest removal of excess skin because the overcorrection is unforgiving. If we perform both upper and lower blepharo-plasty, it is advisable to suture the upper eyelid first, before resecting the skin of the lower eyelid. Some amount of tension will arise and prevent us from resecting too much skin from lower eyelid.

When we undermine the skin of the lower eyelid by spreading scissors or forceps, we continue the short 2-4 mm lateral incision 1 mm below the ciliary margin in the medial direction and it looks like a bayonet. This may be done with scissors, radiofrequency waves, or a scalpel blade. The skin flap should be carefully separated from the underlying orbicularis oculi muscle fibres. When resecting the skin, we remove more

from the lateral triangle than from below the eyelashes to prevent ectropion!

There are mostly three compartments of the lower eyelid with fat pads: medial, central, and lateral. The central herniated and extruding fat pad is usually the largest one. In the past, we used to moderately resect them - otherwise we would deepen the hollow lower eyelid, which is aesthetically disadvantageous. The fat pads can appear with slight digital pressure on the eyelid and they "jump out" if we incise the tiny sheet which surrounds them. We squeeze the fat pad with small forceps, remove the excess fat with scissors, and electrocoagulate the stump for haemostasis. Today, most prominent plastic surgeons prefer the reposition of the fat pads into the infraorbital space to raise the eyeball and to prevent enophtalmos. The septum orbitale should be sutured on the arcus marginalis to close the infraorbital space after herniated fat has been repositioned.

The semilunar excision of the upper eyelids is related to the excess skin and should not be extended onto nasal skin. Otherwise a transverse scar contracture or webbing will occur. We end the operation with haemostasis by a electrocautary device and skin closure with 6-0 monofilament nylon intradermal pull-out sutures and paper stitching plaster or we can also use Dermabond if the wound edges are adaptable.

Sutures That Use Close The Septum

Fig. 33.17. a Malar fat pads are hardly correctable with lower blepharoplasty. b Dermographic markings for conventional upper blepharoplasty and direct excisions of malar fat pads - reverse lower blepharoplasty (of Juarez Avelar). c The scars look like skin folds

If we do both upper and lower blepharoplasty, it is advisable to put a single interpalpebral fixation some 3 mm medial to the lateral eye angle for 4-7 days. Doing so, we can prevent in most cases the reactive inflammatory ectropion.

Postoperative treatment should include light cooling of eyes in the first 6 h to prevent bleeding and swelling. Eyedrops of physiological solution are recommended for the first few days as well as cleaning the eyelashes with small cotton wool sticks. We remove the pull-out-sutures after 3-6 days.

There are numerous things that can go wrong. Some of them are extremely seldom, like blindness:

  1. Dry eye syndrome (lubrication should be done).
  2. Scar hypertrophy and keloids (rare).
  3. Epiphora (tearing) and chemosis.
  4. Prolonged discoloration.
  5. Postoperative bleeding (oestrogen hormones? aspirin? coffee?).
  6. Atrophy resulting from steroid injections.
  7. Retrobulbar haematoma.
  8. Loss of vision (retinal artery occlusion associated with retrobulbar haematoma). In Moser's classic article there were seven cases of postoperative unilateral blindness.
  9. Overresection of fat pads.
  10. Ptosis ("lazy eye" preoperatively?).
Aesthetic Without Roids
Fig. 33.18. a Severe conjunctivitis with inflammatory ectropion after lower blepharoplasty (2 years before, laser peeling was done). b Condition after 3 months of conservative therapy (eyedrops, steroids, lymphodrainage)
Fissure Surgery Stitches Pictures
Fig. 33.19. a Interpalprebral fixation at the end of both upper and lower blepharoplasty of the upper eyelid - first step. b Lower eyelid has been stitched - second step. c The suture is completed, interpalprebral fissure is narrowed for 3-6 days, but the conjunctivitis has been prevented
  1. Persistent small wrinkles (Patient: "Look at me when I smile!" Surgeon: "If you don't smile, you will get wrinkles on your soul, and then you are really old.").
  2. Temporary paresis of the lower eyelid (spontaneous recovery within a few days).
  3. Damage to the inferior oblique muscle (diplopia!): too deep preparation between the medial and the central fat pad could damage the attachment of this muscle.
  4. Wound dehiscence (too early setting of contact lenses? - they should not be worn for 3 weeks postoperatively).
  5. Infection.
  6. Blepharitis.
  7. Inability to close the eyes (temporarily).
  1. 33.21. Real ectropion (from another office): 4 mm deficit of eyelid closure on both sides due to too early blepharoplasty with removal of wrinkle filler 2 weeks before; the patient lost her job, wedding cancelled - personal catastrophe
  2. 33.20. Severe postoperative blepharitis had been treated conventionally and operatively by partial conjunctivectomy; 5 months of treatment requires extreme patience from both patient and surgeon
  3. 33.21. Real ectropion (from another office): 4 mm deficit of eyelid closure on both sides due to too early blepharoplasty with removal of wrinkle filler 2 weeks before; the patient lost her job, wedding cancelled - personal catastrophe
  4. 33.20. Severe postoperative blepharitis had been treated conventionally and operatively by partial conjunctivectomy; 5 months of treatment requires extreme patience from both patient and surgeon
Upper And Lower Blepharoplasty DayUpper And Lower Blepharoplasty Day
  1. 33.22. a Threatening conjunctivitis with reactive ectropion 5 days postoperatively after removal of pull-out-sutures. b Interpalprebral suture on fifth day postoperatively. c After 3 weeks, scleral show and ectropion disappeared
  2. The real ectropion.
  3. Too much upper-eyelid skin remains.
  4. Irregular or unsightly scars (dramatic improvement within 8-10 weeks is possible)
  5. Prolapsed lacrimal glands.
  6. Persisting malar pouches.
  7. Lower-eyelid laxity.

The most common complication in our clinic is irritative conjunctivitis mostly starting from a lateral angle sometimes on both eyes, but mostly just as unilateral conjunctivitis causing inflammatory ectropi-on, which is reversible if conservatively treated (eye-drops, steroids, massage) but could take months to be cured. Steven Fagien from the USA has suggested be-palpebral fixation at the end of surgery to prevent this

Fig. 33.23. Instead of sutures, skin closure could be made by a skin adhesives (Dermabond). and b suture stripe; peroperative sclera protection by vitamin ointment (Bepanten)

irritative ectropion. When doing both upper and lower eyelids, we now use routinely this suture. Once we applied it on the fifth day. When we were removing the pull-out sutures, conjunctivitis and unilateral inflammatory ectropion developed. When the bepalpe-bral suture was applied for 3 weeks the inflammation and ectropion disappeared.

When I was starting my career as a plastic surgeon, I thought blepharoplasty would be one of the simplest surgeries to perform. Now I know it is one of most demanding operative procedures in aesthetic plastic surgery and the failures are often "unforgettable".

Bibliography

Please see the general bibliography at the end of this book.

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  • mike
    Can forceps effect be corrected on weak eyelid?
    3 years ago
  • Miranda
    How is the vaginal stitches done?
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