Laboratory Findings in CR Nonhuman Primates

The beneficial actions of CR were not tested in any animal model living longer than about 4 years until the late 1980s. Since then, studies in longer-lived species, including rhesus and squirrel monkeys, have been underway at the National Institute on Aging and the University of Wisconsin [67-69].

The longevity data in monkeys remain preliminary. However, previous reports from the National Institute on Aging indicate that CR reduces morbidity, neoplastic diseases in particular [70], and perhaps even mortality [71] in monkeys. Early in 2002 at the National Institute on Aging, the proportions of both rhesus and squirrel monkeys that had died in the CR cohorts were about one-half that in the controls [72].

The characteristics of CR monkeys are summarized in Table 2 [72] and Fig. 12A-C [73]. CR monkeys weigh less [74] and have less total and abdominal obesity than controls [75]. In addition, CR reduces body temperature and induces a transient reduction in metabolic rate [76]. Young male CR monkeys also exhibit delayed sexual and skeletal maturation [72, 74]. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest that CR improves the disease risk in rhesus monkeys [72]. CR monkeys have reduced blood glucose and insulin levels and improved insulin sensitivity [75]. CR also reduces blood pressure and lowers the serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels [77]. In

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