The beneficial actions of CR were not tested in any animal model living longer than about 4 years until the late 1980s. Since then, studies in longer-lived species, including rhesus and squirrel monkeys, have been underway at the National Institute on Aging and the University of Wisconsin [67-69].
The longevity data in monkeys remain preliminary. However, previous reports from the National Institute on Aging indicate that CR reduces morbidity, neoplastic diseases in particular , and perhaps even mortality  in monkeys. Early in 2002 at the National Institute on Aging, the proportions of both rhesus and squirrel monkeys that had died in the CR cohorts were about one-half that in the controls .
The characteristics of CR monkeys are summarized in Table 2  and Fig. 12A-C . CR monkeys weigh less  and have less total and abdominal obesity than controls . In addition, CR reduces body temperature and induces a transient reduction in metabolic rate . Young male CR monkeys also exhibit delayed sexual and skeletal maturation [72, 74]. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest that CR improves the disease risk in rhesus monkeys . CR monkeys have reduced blood glucose and insulin levels and improved insulin sensitivity . CR also reduces blood pressure and lowers the serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels . In
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