The healthy gingival sulcus contains relatively few organisms, usually Streptococci and Actinomyces (Table 1). The development of gingivitis is associated with a significant increase in AGNB (F. nucleatum, P. intermedia and Bacteroides spp.), spirochetes and motile rods.
NUG is known to be caused by synergistic infection between unusually large spirochetes and fusobacteria (39-41), which are part of the normal oropharyngeal flora. Loesche et al. (40) found that the bacteria associated with the infection are fairly constant and include oral Treponemes and Selenomonas spp., which represent these Spirochete and Spirochete-like organisms, and P. intermidia and Fusobacterium spp.
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