p-Blockers should be given to patients undergoing vascular surgery who are at high cardiac risk owing to the finding of ischemia on preoperative testing. They are probably indicated for patients undergoing vascular or intermediate-risk surgery in which perioperative assessment identifies coronary artery disease or more than one clinical risk factor. Finally, they should be continued in patients undergoing surgery who are already receiving these medications for the treatment of angina, symptomatic arrhythmias, or hypertension.
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