What are the origins of modern laparoscopic surgery

P. Bozzini developed the first self-contained endoscope in 1805, using candlelight for illumination. The first clinical laparoscopic examination in humans was performed by H. Jacobaeus in 1910. By the 1970s gynecologic laparoscopic surgery was being performed routinely. The first laparoscopic appendectomy was performed by Semm in 1983, and the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed by Muhe in 1985. Since then the concept and techniques have rapidly expanded to include multiple surgical disciplines. Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard of care for some procedures.

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