Cleaning or disinfection of environment

Cleaning is necessary to control environmental contamination and for minimizing the spread of microorganisms. Cleaning also serves aesthetic aspects and a clean environment promotes further hygienic action. There are two cleaning methods dry cleaning and wet cleaning. The choice between wet and dry cleaning depends on the nature of the dirt and the room. A dry system is preferred for the cleaning of floors and particular materials. The dry system uses little or no liquid. Floors remain dry...

Antimicrobial Drug Classes

Traditionally, antibacterial drugs were audited for economic reasons. They have been considered to contribute 75 of the total drug cost of an institution's drug bill (Achong et al, 1977). Often these drugs have a broad spectrum and are on a restricted drug list (Fraser et al., 1997) including vancomycin (Drori-Zeides et al., 2000 Evans et al., 1999 Fowler et al., 1998) ciprofloxacin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam (Thuong et al., 2000). Certain drugs of different classes are considered to...

References

Abi-Said, D., Anaissie, E., Uzun, O., Raad, I., Pinzcowski, H., and Vartivarian, S., 1997, The epidemiology of hematogenous candidiasis caused by different Candida species. Clin. Infect. Dis., 24, 1122-1128. Asmundsdottir, L. R., Erlendsdottir, H., and Gottfredsson, M., 2002, Increasing incidence of candidemia Results from a 20-year nationwide study in Iceland. J. Clin. Microbiol., 40, 3489-3492. Baran, J., Muckatira, B., and Khatib, R., 2001, Candidemia before and during the fluconazole era...

Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing in the Community

Le Bonheur Children's Medical Center, University of Tennessee, 50 N Dunlap St, Memphis TN 38103, USA Antimicrobial resistant bacterial pathogens have become an increasing threat to the world's population. Many common pathogens have become resistant to usual antimicrobial therapy leading to escalating use of combinations of powerful, broad-spectrum antibiotics. Worldwide, community-acquired infections with drug resistant Salmonellae, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are quite...

Effect Of Interventions On Patient Outcomes

Two studies examining the effect of patient-based interventions on antibiotic use also examined the effect of withholding antibiotics on the clinical outcomes of enrolled patients. Both of these studies examined the effect of delaying antibiotic prescriptions, one for acute otitis media in children and one for the common cold in adults. Both studies documented reduced antibiotic use by those patients randomized to the delayed antibiotics groups of the respective studies. In the study of delayed...

Rational prophylaxis against fungal disease

Prevention of fungal disease is an obviously desirable goal for patients at high risk of invasive infection. Each individual patient has to be assessed for the appropriateness of antifungal prophylaxis the level of risk of mycosis, the extent of immunocompromising factors such as neutrophil count, the ability of the patient to take oral medication, and the other drugs being used to manage the patient are just a few of the detailed factors that need to be considered in deciding whether to use...

Educational outreachacademic detailing

Face-to-face detailing has been used by the pharmaceutical industry for many years to market its products to physicians. The studies in this section use similar methods of detailing physicians regarding appropriate prescribing. The detailers in these studies were either clinical or research pharmacists or medical doctors. In some studies the effectiveness of different types of detailers are compared. This method is attractive for appropriate prescribing education as it has been used very...

Educational group meetings or seminars

This category of study includes those in which the intervention consists of one or more group educational sessions. It excludes educational outreach visits which are generally one-on-one meetings between the prescribing physician and another individual (physician, pharmacist, drug detailer). Information reviewed at the meetings generally includes an oral and audiovisual review of recommendations for appropriate prescribing practices for particular conditions or particular antibiotics and or...

General Costs Of Mrsa

Most authorities would agree that MRSA is probably the most important resistant bacterium associated with HAI. Staphylococci themselves are the most common pathogens causing bacteraemia according to national surveillance of bloodstream infections (Pfaller et al., 1998). Along with Escherichia coli, they account for over 55 of all bacteraemias from one recent study (Diekema et al., 2000). The only major change from similar previous studies was the increase in methicillin (oxacillin) resistance...

Process outcome prescribing behaviour 211 Definition

Gyssens Algorithm

Traditionally, quality is measured by an in-depth analysis of medical records, also called audits of practice. An audit of antimicrobial drug use is defined as the analysis of appropriateness of individual prescriptions (Gould et al., 1994). Although this approach is costly in manpower, an audit is certainly the most complete method to judge all aspects of therapy. Moreover, the evaluation process (see below) can be used as an educational tool (Gyssens et al., 1992). The feedback of the results...

Antibiotic Consumption Calculator

ABC Calc (Monnet, 2003) is a simple computer tool utilising the ATC DDD system to measure antibiotic consumption at both the hospital and ward level as DDDs 100 bed-days (Figure 1). It transforms aggregated data provided by hospital pharmacies (generally as a number of packages or vials) into meaningful antibiotic utilisation rates. It was originally developed in the Department of Antimicrobial Resistance & Hospital Hygiene, Statens Serum Institut (Copenhagen, Denmark), by Dr Dominique...

Isolation cohorting and contact isolation

Patients may need source isolation because they are infected and hazardous to others, or they may need protective isolation because their susceptibility to infection is increased. Such precautions against infection are often costly in money and the time of skilled staff and may be exasperating impediments to routine clinical work (Bagshawe et al., 1978 Barrett et al., 1998). Single room isolation may also precipitate psychological distress, particularly in the elderly (Tarzi et al., 2001)....

A longstanding E coli infection of liver cysts

More complex scenarios were seen with a study of a patient with infected cysts (Low, 2002 Low et al., 2001). A patient suffering Caroli syndrome, which is a congenital disease frequently associated with the formation of liver cysts, was treated for frequent episodes of bacteraemia associated with E. coli colonisation of the cysts. Via surgical examination, it was estimated that the patient had > 100 cysts, many of which were infected. Cell densities in two cysts, sampled surgically, were...

Guidol Ma English 1st Sem Result 2015

D., MacDonald, N., Fuite, L., Chan, F., and Stephens, D., 1999, Risk factors for resistance to first-line antimicrobials among urinary tract isolates of Escherichia Coli in children. CMAJ, 160, 1436-1440. Angunawela, I., Diwan, V, and Tomson, G., 1991, Experimental evaluation of the effects of drug information on antibiotic prescribing A study in outpatient care in an area of Sri lanka. Int. J. Epidemiol., 20, 558-564. Arason, V A., Kristinsson, K. G., Sigurdsson, J. A.,...

Possible mechanisms involved in bacterial resistance to biocides and antibiotics

The main difference between antibiotic and biocide is their mechanism of action at their in use concentration. Whereas antibiotics have generally a unique target site within the bacterial cell Chopra, 1998 Chopra et al., 2002 , biocides are different in having multiple target sites, the inactivation alteration destruction of which lead to an inhibitory or lethal effect Hugo, 1999b Maillard, 2002 . Microorganisms have developed several mechanisms to survive the lethal or static effects of...