Proven Lupus Treatment By Dr Gary Levin

Proven Lupus Treatment Ebook by Dr. Gary Levin

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The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), first described in 1983 by Dr. Graham Hughes and his team at the Hammersmith Hospital, included recurrent arterial and venous thromboses, fetal losses, and thrombocytopenia in the presence of autoan-tibodies, the so-called antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Although a wide variety of clinical manifestations have been added over the last 5 years, these major features have stood the test of time. Many patients with APS have clinical and laboratory features common to other autoimmune diseases, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Such patients are defined as having secondary APS to distinguish them from patients with features of APS alone (primary APS-PAPS). There appears to be very few differences, if any, between the clinical complications associated with the primary and the secondary form of the syndrome, and the rates of arterial or venous thrombosis or fetal loss do not appear to be different. Distinguishing between PAPS and APS due to SLE can sometimes be difficult since many features, such as thrombocytopenia, anemia, renal, and central nervous system involvement, can be seen in both the conditions.

Historical description of aPL is summarized in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1. Historical description of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL).


Wasserman reaction (reagin)


Reagin binds cardiolipin


False-positive test for syphilis


Lupus anticoagulant (LA)


LA: association with thrombosis


LA: association with fetal loss


Anticardiolipin antibody (aCL)


Detailed description of anti phospholipid syndrome (APS)


Phospholipid binding proteins (P2GPI)


Animal models for APS


Classification criteria for definite APS


Classification criteria updated

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