References

Abraham JM, Freitag CS, Clements JR, Eisenstein BI (1985) An invertible element of DNA controls phase variation of type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82 5724-5727 Abraham SN, Goguen JD, Sun D, Klemm P, Beachey EH (1987) Identification of two ancillary subunits of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae by using antibodies against synthetic oligopep-tides offim gene products. J Bacteriol 169 5530-5536 Abrahams HM, Stoller ML (2003) Infection and urinary stones. Curr Opin Urol...

Physiology of Staphylococcal Biofilms Lessons from Transcriptional Profiling

After complete genome sequences of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other staphylococci had become available, transcriptional profiling of biofilm gene expression was soon initiated. Three transcriptional profiling-based manuscripts have been published, two on S. aureus (Beenken et al. 2004 Resch et al. 2005) and one on S. epidermidis (Yao et al. 2005), and in addition, proteomics were used to confirm results obtained by the microarray experiments (Resch et al. 2006). The general lessons learned...

Infectious Urinary Stones

Approximately 15 of urinary stones are initiated by infections (Bichler et al. 2002). These stones can form in the bladder or kidney and are often associated with abnormalities of the urinary tract or obstructions (Bichler et al. 2002 Abrahams and Stoller 2003). These stones are composed of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) or apatite (calcium phosphate). The formation of these stones is strongly correlated with urease-producing bacteria and for the purposes of this chapter, these stones...

On Cue Induced Mechanisms

As with any environmental change, antibiotic treatment can alter regulatory patterns within bacteria. Antibiotic treatment can be a harsh stress, even for bacteria within a biofilm. Consequently, one would predict that there must be some antibiotic-regulated genes that influence antibiotic resistance or sensitivity of biofilm bacteria. As previously mentioned, antibiotics can activate regulatory pathways, leading to a profound effect upon the biofilm matrix and achieved biomass (Bagge et al....

Chronic Prostatitis

An additional infection of the urinary tract that is associated with biofilm formation is chronic bacterial prostatitis in men. The most commonly encountered bacteriological agent in prostatitis is E. coli, followed by other members of the Enterobacteriaceae (Proteus and Klebsiella) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (Domingue and Hellstrom 1998). These infections are notoriously difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Studies by Nickel and Costerton demonstrated that prostate biopsy...

Biofilm Matrix Polysaccharides

One of the most distinctive features that distinguishes biofilms from planktonic populations is the presence of an extracellular matrix embedding the biofilm bacteria and determining mature biofilm architecture (Sutherland 2001 Starkey et al. 2004). Along with expression of proteinaceous adhesins, production of this matrix is essential for maturation of the biofilm structure. The biofilm matrix is a complex milieu essentially composed of water (97 ), but it also includes exopolysaccharide...

Type 1 pili in UPEC Pathogenesis and Intracellular Biofilm Formation

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are the most common causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs) (Hooton and Stamm 1997). Moreover, UPEC biofilms are responsible for many catheter-associated and chronic UTIs (Nicolle 2005). UPEC strains can vary greatly in their ability to cause UTIs. This is most likely due to the different repertoire of virulence factors associated with each UPEC strain (Foxman et al. 1995 Johnson et al. 1998 Marrs et al. 2005). Virulence factors described for UPEC...

Persisters in Yeast Biofilms

Eukaryotic yeasts have a lifestyle that is very similar to that of prokaryotic microorganisms. Not surprisingly, analogous adaptations evolved in these two groups in response to similar environmental challenges through convergent evolution. For example, yeasts form biofilms that, similarly to bacterial biofilms, are responsible for highly recalcitrant infections (Kumamoto and Vinces 2005). The focus of yeast biofilm research has been on C. albicans, an important human pathogen that causes oral...

Type 1 Pili Involvement in Abiotic Biofilm Formation

Many motile laboratory strains of E. coli are able to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), polypropylene, polycarbonate, and borosil-icate glass when grown statically in rich medium at room temperature (Pratt and Kolter 1998). Therefore, type 1-mediated biofilm formation may contribute to the ability of UPEC to withstand antibiotic treatments and host antimicrobial defenses in the urinary tract. To gain an understanding of the factors involved in formation of E....

The Molecular Basis of Biofilm Formation in Staphylococci

Biofilm Formation

Research conducted in many biofilm-forming organisms has revealed that the development of a biofilm is a two-step process involving an initial attachment and a subsequent maturation phase, which are physiologically different from each other Fig. 1 Phases of biofilm development in staphylococci. Biofilms form by initial attachment to a surface, which can occur on tissues or after covering of an abiotic surface by host matrix proteins in the human body (specific, protein-protein interaction) or...

Adhesive Forces Aggregation

In staphylococci, the main molecule responsible for intercellular adhesion is the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), which is also called poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) according to its chemical composition (Mack et al. 1996). It is a partially deacetylated polymer of beta-1-6-linked N-acetylglu-cosamine, which together with other polymers such as teichoic acids and proteins forms the major part of what has often been called slime, the extracellular matrix of biofilm-forming...