Biofilms and Staphylococcal Infections

The Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System ( NNIS/2004NNISreport.pdf) recognizes S. aureus and CoNS (coagulase-negative staphylococci, i.e., S. epidermidis and most other staphylococci other than S. aureus)

as the most frequently isolated nosocomial pathogens from intensive care unit patients. An extremely high percentage of these isolates are resistant to methicillin (89% CoNS compared to 59.5% for S. epidermidis). In addition to specific antibiotic resistance, which is based on the acquisition of genetic resistance factors and may be chromosomally, or more often plasmid-encoded, staphylococci have nonspecific mechanisms of resistance, of which biofilm formation is undoubtedly the most important.

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