Concluding Remarks

In the last decade, the study of bacterial biofilms and surface-associated communities has been met with rekindled interest. It is now recognized that many of the early findings were rather generalized and that biofilms are much more complex and dynamic than originally anticipated. This chapter reviews past and current P. aeruginosa biofilm research and provides insight into how older paradigms are challenged by newer and sometimes conflicting observations. The reports show how strain background as well as the choice of biofilm reactors and/or growth medium can substantially influence the outcome of a given experiment and reflect the ability of P. aeruginosa to successfully adapt to various environmental conditions. However, the broad spectrum of results obtained in these studies also reminds us that our understanding of P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, architecture, and resistance phenotype is rudimentary and that we have merely scratched its surface.

Acknowledgements D.J.W. is supported by Public Health Service grants AI061396 and HL58334 and A.H.T. by American Heart Association grant 0515325U.

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