Chelation for Coronary Heart Disease

Chelation Natural Miracle For Protecting Your Heart

Chelation therapy has been conclusively shown to be up to 82 Percent Effective at dissolving the plaque that blocks arteries! In the ebook Chelation Natural Miracle For Protecting Your Heart you'll discover: The frustrating reason many doctors are ignoring Edta chelationor even openly rejecting it. The deadly heart surgeries even the American Heart Association admits are unnecessary. The hidden signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes? Are you in danger right now?. The average number of years stripped away by heart and vessel disease. Can you get them back?. The newest set of risk factors for heart disease (they'll likely surprise you!). Shady government practices that protect Big Pharma and keep Edta chelation out of the public eye. How the Roman Empire could have been savedif only they'd known about Edta chelation. Why Edta chelation is guaranteed to be safeeven in extremely high doses. (It puts aspirin to shame!). The shocking truth about plaque in young childrenand how to keep your little ones safer. Why dentists, artists and welders need Edta chelationand whether your workplace is dangerous too. The differences between IV and oral chelationand which kind of Edta is right for you. Other forms of chelationand how these little-known treatments can dramatically boost your health.

Chelation Natural Miracle For Protecting Your Heart Summary


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Author: Michael Cutler, M.D.
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Nucleotide Exchange Catalyzed by SopE Versus EDTA

It is quite interesting to observe that SopE78-240 -catalyzed G-nucleotide release can proceed at higher rates (fccat) than G-nucleotide release in the presence of EDTA 4, 33, 37 . The latter reaction is commonly used for loading G-binding proteins with new nucleotides or as a control for G-nucleotide release experiments. The different G-release rates obtained with a Mg2+ chelator (EDTA) and SopE can be rationalized if one considers the underlying catalytic mechanisms. These are quite different, even though the net result (dissociation of a G-nucleotide that was formerly bound to the G protein) is the same. In general, RhoGTPases bind the G-nucleotide with three regions of the protein (switch I, switch II, P-loop). In addition, the RhoGTPases bind a magnesium ion, which stabilizes the phosphate of the G-nucleotide. This Mg2+ interaction is required for high-affinity G-nucleotide binding. EDTA disrupts this stabilizing interaction by removing the magnesium ion. SopE uses an entirely...

Types and effects of rancidity

The induction period (IP) is very sensitive to small concentrations of components that shorten the IP, the pro-oxidants, or lengthen the IP, which are the antioxidants. Metal ions are the most important pro-oxidants in foods, whereas antioxidants include compounds that act by radical scavenging, metal chelation or other mechanisms. The presence of an induction period is characteristic of chemical reactions that proceed by a free-radical The phases present in the food will also affect the rate of oxidation by affecting the activity of the antioxidants present, and by partitioning of pro-and antioxidants between oil and aqueous phases. The term polar paradox has been applied to the phenomenon whereby polar antioxidants are most effective in oils, whereas non-polar antioxidants are more effective in emulsions. Normally, metal chelation is less effective as an antioxidant mechanism in water-containing foods than in oils.

H394 C451 C516 Zn2 Binding

Database) structures containing Zn(II), some of which are known to contain Zn(II) in a structural motif and some of which are known to contain Zn(II) in a catalytic motif. They compared the types of ligands to Zn(II) as a method to determine the function of Zn(II) in an unknown protein, and they found that when there are two or more cysteines ligated to a Zn(II) it usually acts in a structural capacity. However, there are also other effects from the rest of the protein that may contribute to the electronic environment surrounding the Zn(II), and so the distances between Zn(II) and its ligands can also be considered as a method to evaluate the function. They find that the Zn(II)-S and Zn(II)-N distances are longer for catalytic Zn(II) than they are for structural Zn(II) (Lee and Lim 2008). Interestingly, the ADAR2 active site fits into the parameters defined for a structural Zn(II), except for the fact that it has a water bound (Macbeth et al. 2005), which is a characteristic of a...

Smallmolecule inhibitors of asynuclein aggregation

Other small-molecule inhibitors of a-synuclein have been identified in the literature such as Congo red. 80 . Polyphenolic compounds such as rifampicin, curcumin, and tetracycline are capable of inhibiting both a-synuclein 79 and Ab aggregation 82 in a concentration-dependent manner with some potency (IC50

Isolation and Cell Culture of T Lymphocytes

Note that trypan blue exclusion will be used to determine the viability of PBMCs. If the PBMCs are contaminated with red blood cells (RBCs) and the sample appears red, it can be hemolyzed using ACK lysis buffer (0.15M NH4Cl, 1 mM KHCO3, and 0.1 mM EDTA). If used immediately, the isolated PBMCs should be kept in RPMI-1640 containing Pen-Strep at 37 C in a CO2 incubator. If the cells need to be kept for a longer time, maintain in RPMI containing Pen-Strep and 10 FBS at 37 C in a CO2 incubator. Although the manufacturer's protocol suggests that PBMCs may be stored in the refrigerator overnight in PBS containing 2 mM EDTA supplemented with 10 autologous serum after the last washing step before separation using an magnetic cell sorting (MACS) column, we found that storing SLE PBMCs under these conditions sometimes results in large clumps that fail to resuspend and later clog the separation column and decrease the flow and yield. Overnight incubation of SLE PBMCs also leads to decreased...

PKa of Regulatory Approved Organic Acids

Chelating compounds such as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or its salts have a potentiating effect on some antimicrobials. They expand the activity of certain antimicrobials (e.g., nisin, lysozyme) to include Gram-negative bacteria, which are not normally inhibited by the compounds alone (Cutter and Siragusa, 1995 Branen and Davidson, 2004). In addition, some Gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible to certain antimicrobials in the presence of chelators including EDTA. It is theorized that chelators may destabilize the LPS layer of the outer cell membrane of the Gram-negative bacteria, allowing the antimicrobials access to the inner cell membrane.

Bacterial Cell Lysis and Release of Intact Chromosomal DNA

A pure culture of a bacterial isolate of known identity is incubated overnight in a nutrient broth, such as trypticase soy broth (BD Biosciences, Sparks, MD, USA) in order to achieve 109cells mL, which is the concentration needed to obtain a visible band pattern. Standard DNA extraction procedures are inappropriate for the analysis of large chromosomal DNA molecules because of DNA shearing caused by the application of mechanical force in the protocol. In order to prevent DNA damage, it is important to mix intact bacterial cells with warmed, liquid-phase agarose, and this mixture can then be pipetted into plastic molds to form 10 x 5 x 1.5 mm agarose plugs. The whole cells embedded in plugs are lysed and deproteinized by detergents and enzymes (e.g., lysostaphin, lysozyme, proteinase K, mutanolysin or lyticase) in situ (Table 9.1). Following cell lysis, the plugs are washed 4-5 times with wash buffer containing 20 mM Tris and 50 mM EDTA (pH 8.0) to remove cell debris and proteinase....

Separation of Large DNA Fragments

To achieve the best resolution across a broad range of DNA sizes by PFGE, there are several factors that must be considered concentration and composition of the agarose gel and the buffer, the running temperature, pulsed-field conditions including switching times, electric field strength, pulse angle, and total electrophoresis duration. For example, the agarose concentration determines the size range of DNA molecules separated and the sharpness. DNA fragments can migrate at different rates in TAE (Tris-acetate-EDTA) and TBE (Tris-borate-EDTA) buffers due to differences in ionic strength. Raising the buffer temperature increases the DNA mobility, and changing PFGE system parameters can also affect the migration rate of DNA molecules. With careful selection of these conditions, PFGE can be applied to genotypic typing of most bacteria and yeast. As a result of PulseNet, the National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance, PFGE conditions have been standardized for...

LDL oxidation and atherogenesis

Acid dispersions, lipids, oils, and LDL.20'21 As for phenolic acids, the inhibition of oxidation by flavonoids is related to the chelation of metal ions via the ortho-dihydroxy phenolic structure, the scavenging of alkoxyl and peroxyl radicals, and the regeneration of a-tocopherol through reduction of the tocopheryl radical.20 The contribution of flavonoids and phenolic acids to the prevention and possibly to the therapy of cardiovascular disease can also be found on metabolic pathways other than the antioxidant capacity. As previously mentioned, arteriosclerosis is characterised by early cellular events and by the dysregulation of the normal cellular homeostasis.17 Molecular mechanisms, by which polyphenols may play a role either in the etiopathology or in the pathophysiology of arteriosclerosis, will be discussed here, with particular regard to the modulation of gene expression regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), and to the induction of either...

Preparation of a Microsomal Fraction

Homogenization medium 0.3 M sucrose, 50 mM 3-(-N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS)-KOH, 5 mM Na-EDTA, pH 7.5, 0.2 (w v) casein (enzymatic hydrolysate Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA C 0626) (see Note 1). 6. Resuspension medium 0.3 M sucrose, 5 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.8 (see Note 4), 0.1 mM Na-EDTA, 1 mM DTT (see Note 2).

Reagents Materials and Equipment

YPD or the appropriate SD liquid medium, sterile 1xTE LiAc (prepare immediately prior to use from 10x stocks), sterile 1.5-ml micro centrifuge tubes for the transformation, appropriate SD agar plates (100-mm plates), appropriate plasmid DNA in solution, appropriate yeast reporter strain for making competent cells, Herring Testes carrier DNA (10 mg ml denature the carrier DNA by placing it in boiling water for 20 min and immediately cool it on ice), sterile 40-50 PEG-LiAc solution (make PEG solution in 1x 0.1 M LiAc), 10x TE buffer (0.1 M Tris-HCl, 10 mM EDTA, pH 7.5, autoclaved), 0.1 M LiAc, 100 DMSO, glass spreader to spread cells on plates. 3. LiAc solution 0.1 M LiAc (0.1 g 10 ml), 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 1 mM EDTA (50 (j.l 10 ml). 7. 10x TE pH 8.0 10 mM Tris-HCl (6.0578 g), 1 mM EDTA (1.8612 g). *Amino acid mixture L-isoleucine (300 mg l), L-valine (1500 mg l), L-ad-enine hemisulfate (200 mg l), L-arginine HCl (200 mg l), L-lysine HCl (300 mg l), L-methionine (200 mg l),...

Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Therapy

Glucose, by a process of autooxidation in the presence of decompartmenta-lized trace transitional metals, can cause lipid peroxidation (6). We have evaluated the role of hyperglycemia in lipid peroxidation in vitro, using an in vitro lipid peroxidation model, with an ascorbate-iron-EDTA system. The addition of 20 raM glucose to the incubation medium increased lipid peroxidation fourfold, confirming rapid and marked glucose-mediated autooxidative lipid peroxidation (7). Glucose autooxidation results in the production of protein reactive ketoaldehydes, hydrogen peroxide highly reactive oxidants, and the fragmentation of proteins (free radical mechanisms). Glycation and oxidation are simultaneous and inextricably linked (8).

Class B Beta Lactamases

Metallo beta-lactamases (Class B Ambler designation) are typically identified in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates. They have become widely disseminated in Asia, South America, southern Europe, and parts of Canada, but remain rare in the United States with the exception of sporadic case reports. These beta-lacta-mases confer resistance to most beta-lactams including carbapenems. A minority are active against aztreonam, and they cannot be inhibited by our current clinical inhibitors. New methods to detect and report metallo-beta-lactamases are being developed and employed in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Class B enzymes are inhibited under conditions where their metal ions have been removed, e.g., by addition of a metal chelator like ethylene diamine tetraacetate or EDTA. Because the Class B enzymes are an unusual cause of beta-lactam resistance in U.S. hospitals, they are not discussed further in this chapter. The interested reader is referred to an excellent review by...

Matrix Metalloproteinases Inhibitors

PF-00356231 (31) has been co-crystallized with MMP-12. Although it is not selective for MMP-12, it is an example of a non-zinc-chelating MMP inhibitor. Within this study, acetohydroxamate, added to the crystallization solutions to aid protein stability, stabilized a ternary complex with 31 and the protein through chelation with the Zn2+ ion 96 . The design of non-zinc-chelating MMP inhibitors is aimed at identifying more selective compounds 97,98 .

S cerevisiae Membrane Vesicles

Buffer 3 25 mM MES-Tris, pH 6.5, 5 mM ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 0.2 bovine serum albumin (BSA) (fatty-acid free), 0.2 casein hy-drolysate (Difco, Detroit, MI), 1 mM DTT and 1 mM PMSF. 1. Two-phase buffer (4 x concentrated) 1.32 M sucrose, 20 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.8, 4 mM EDTA. 2. Two-phase buffer 0.33 M sucrose, 5 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.8, 1 mM EDTA.

Application of the Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology bDNA Assays

The HCV RNA 3.0 Assay is for the quantitation of human hepatitis C viral RNA (HCV RNA) in the serum or plasma (EDTA and ACD) of HCV-infected individuals. It is the only FDA-approved quantitative viral load assay. The assay measures HCV RNA levels at baseline and during therapy and is useful in predicting non-sustained response to HCV therapy. HCV RNA 3.0 Assay (bDNA) quantitates all HCV RNA genotypes (genotypes 1-6). Like the HIV test, the broad dynamic range (615 to 7,690,000 IU mL) of HCV dramatically reduces repeat testing that is the need to dilute and re-run test due to out-of-range samples (Jacob, 1997 Beld, 2002 Germer, 2002 Konnick, 2002 Veillon, 2003 Elbeik, 2004).

Technical Considerations

The buffers most often used for Southern blotting are 10-20 SSC (20X SSC 1.5 M sodium chloride, 0.15M sodium citrate), SSPE (sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, EDTA), and 0.4 M sodium hydroxide (Brown, 1999). While alkaline buffers seem most effective when blotting to a positively charged membrane, SSC and SSPE (high-salt buffers) show excellent transfer results irrespective of membrane charge (positive or uncharged). The value of using an alkaline buffered transfer is that it allows covalent binding of DNA to the membrane, without necessitating posttransfer UV cross-linking (required after high-salt buffer transfers). A drawback to the use of alkaline buffer is the higher signal background that may occur, particularly when chemiluminescent detection methods are employed.

Isolation of Detergents and H202 Resistant Alkaline Proteases

Alkaline proteases are used extensively in detergents, the food industry, and leather tanning. Enzymes produced commercially are derived only from microorganisms, and the microorganisms must be able to produce a high enzyme yield from low-cost substrates. The success of alkaline proteases in detergents is depend on whether the enzymes have the following properties 1) a wide pH activity range, 2) stability under high alkaline conditions, 3) high activity and stability in the presence of surfactants, 4) high stability in the presence of builders such as chelating reagents and bleaching agents, 5) high activity over a wide temperature range, 6) long shelf-life, and 7) low production cost. Although many enzymes have been reported, the alkaline proteases described above, however, have several weak points in their enzymatic properties, e.g., they are sensitive in the presence of oxidants and chelating agents. These disadvantages have been overcome by the isolation of new Bacillus strains by...

Classification Of Plactamases

P-lactamases according to substrate preferences and inhibition characteristics. Four major groups are recognized in this classification. Group 1 consists of cephalospo-rinases which are not inhibited by clavulanic acid. Group 2 consists of penicillinases, including broad-spectrum penicillinases that are generally inhibited by the active-site-directed P-lactamase inhibitors. Subgroups of enzymes, namely 2a, 2b, 2be, 2br, 2c, 2d, 2e, and 2f, were defined based on the rates of hydrolysis of carbenicillin, cloxacillin, extended-spectrum P-lactams ceftazidime, cefotaxime, or aztreonam, and of inhibition profile by clavulanate, respectively. Enzymes that are inhibited by the metal-chelating agent EDTA are classified as group 3. Group 4 consists of other P-lactamases that are not inhibited by clavulanic acid.

Studies Investigating the Use of Novel Catheter Lock Solutions for the Eradication of Biofilms

Other less conventional approaches, using agents that are not classified as antimicrobial agents, have been evaluated using the ALT approach. For example, tetrasodium EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) or disodium EDTA used alone or in combination with minocycline have been used effectively against bacterial and fungal biofilms. EDTA has antimicrobial properties (Raad et al. 1997 Root et al. 1988) against bacteria and fungi, and may also destabilize the biofilm structure (Turakhia et al. 1983). Percival et al. (2005) and Kite et al. (2004) showed that 40 mg ml-1 of tetrasodium EDTA could eradicate biofilms in an in vitro model and on explanted hemodialysis catheters, respectively. In the in vitro model system, the treatment eradicated biofilms after a 21-h dwell time against biofilms of S. epidermidis, P. aeruginosa, K.pneumoniae, and E. coli grown for 48 h after a 25-h dwell time, biofilms of MRSA and C. albicans were also eradicated. Raad et al. (2003) tested 18-h biofilms of...

Bacillus Strain NRRL B3881 Amylase

After Horikoshi's paper (Horikoshi 1971b), Boyer and Ingle (Boyer et al. 1972) and Boyer et al. (1973) reported alkaline amylase in the strain NRRL B-3881. This was the second report of an alkaline amylase. The B-3881 amylase showed optimum pH for enzyme action at 9.2. A-40-2 amylase retains 50 of its activity between pH 9.0 and 11.5, and B-3881 enzyme retains the same activity between pH 7.0 and 10.5. Both amylases are relatively more stable against EDTA than either Bacillus amyloliquefaciens or B. subtilis amylase. The enzyme yields maltose, maltotriose and small amounts of glucose and maltotetraose, all of which have a ( -configuration. The properties of these amylases are given in Table 8.2.

Read that toxins can cause MS Is this true Can I be detoxified

One continuing concern is whether mercury in dental amalgam, the material used in dental fillings, is a health issue for MS. Although industrial mercury pollution was a major health problem in Japan and elsewhere, mercury in dental amalgam is a very different issue. There are inconsequential differences in serum and tissue levels of mercury in MS patients as compared with normals. We have found no differences in urinary excretion of mercury in MS patients. In studies of edentulous MS patients who had never had any dental repairs, we found they had higher levels of mercury simply because they consumed more fish. Thus, there is no medical justification for removal of amalgam dental fillings, and the concept of detoxification has no place in the management of MS. Increased excretion of metals after chelation with drugs does not mean toxic levels were present in the person prior to chelation. Many of the measurements reported by laboratories are unreliable. Hair analysis is preferred, but...

Twometalbinding Pharmacophore And First Generation Strand Transfer Inhibitors

Demonstrate efficacy in human trials and a rhesus macaques simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) model, respectively 9,10 . The sultam-containing analog L-870,810 was advanced into phase Ila studies and demonstrated a 1.7-log10 reduction in viral load in HIV-1-infected subjects when dosed orally up to 400 mg BID. Development of L-870,810 was discontinued due to hepatotoxicity observed in long-term safety studies. Importantly, however, clinical validation of INIs as efficacious antivirals had been established. An alternative metal chelation motif was demonstrated using five-membered heterocycles, as shown in compound 8 11,12 . It was found that the use of either a triazole or isomeric oxadiazoles imparted potent enzyme and antiviral activity demonstrating the amide isostere's ability to participate in the two-metal-binding pharmacophore. The naphthyridinone core has been used in combination with a benzyl carboxamide substituent to provide the pharmacophore elements of a planar...

Testicular Spermatozoa

Motility or twitching is then assessed at 100-200x magnifaction, and a second biopsy specimen is obtained if spermatozoa are not found. Spermatozoa can be released by shredding the testicular tissue with two glass slides or fine tweezers, producing unraveled and broken tubules. Other methods include vortexing or crushing the biopsy in a tissue homogenizer. If more than 10 x 106 ml red blood cells are present, the sample is also treated with an erythrocyte-lysing buffer solution (155 mM NH4Cl, 10 mM KHCO3, 2 mM EDTA, pH 7.2) (35), after which the sperm suspensions are layered on a discontinuous two-layer density gradient (95-47.5 ). After centrifugation, the pellet from the 95 fraction is prepared as described above.

General Protocol for RAPD Technique to Show Polymorphism

Reagents (all the chemicals, primers and enzymes were obtained from Operon Technology) DNA isolation buffer (Moller et al. 1992), 2 hexadecy-ltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), NaCl (1.4 M), EDTA (20 mM), Tris HCl (100 mM), chloroform isoamylalcohol (20 1), isopropanol, sodium acetate, ethanol (70 ), Tris EDTA (TE, pH 8.0), Tris-HCl (pH 8.0, 10 mM), EDTA (pH 8.0, 1 mM), DNA amplification mixture for PCR, RNase A, loading buffer, bromophenol blue (0.25 ), sucrose in water (40 , w v store in small aliquots at 4 C), primers (short oligonucleotide), ethidium bromide (caution ethidium bromide is a powerful mutagen wear gloves and masks when handling and weighing). Note all buffers, pipette tips and Eppendorfs should be sterilized at 121 C for 15 min. Sterilize by autoclaving at 15 psi (ca. 103 kPa) for 15 min. 3. Grind the freeze-dried mycelia (5 g) using liquid nitrogen and transfer the powdered mycelium into Eppendorf tubes (2 ml). Add equal amounts of pre-warmed isolation buffer (2...

Preliminary Results with Nuclear Transplantation

Either a stromal or a cumulus cell was then inserted subzonally into an enucleated mouse GV oocyte. Each grafted oocyte was manually aligned between two microelectrodes, and cell fusion was induced by applying direct current. The resulting reconstituted oocytes were allowed to mature for 14-16 h until extrusion of the first PB (103). The distribution of nuclear chromatin between the ooplasm and the PB was evaluated by specific DNA staining. For this, some mature oocytes were stained with DAPI solution and evaluated under a fluorescent microscope, while others were anchored between a microslide and coverslip, fixed with methanol acetic acid (3 1 v v), and stained with 1 aceto-orcein solution.

Membrane Preparation For Receptor Binding Studies

Porcine brains, which were obtained within 30 min after death of the animals from a local slaughterhouse, were used to prepare receptor-rich membranes. The brains were immediately frozen in liquid N2 50 g brain per 200 mL ice-cold buffer (0.32 M sucrose, 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA) were homogenized twice for 15 sec in a blender and then for 1 min with an ultraturrax. The homogenate was centrifuged three times for 15 min at 1.400 g and 4 C to separate cellular debris. The supernatant was spun down at 100.000 g for 60 min. The resulting pellet was resuspended in buffer (as above but without sucrose). Aliquots were stored frozen at -80 C. Protein content was determined by the Lowry method, using bovine serum albumin as a standard.32-35

Recovery of Proteins Under Study

After the partition experiment, separate the phase containing the complex protein-metal-chelate-PEG (top phase) from the bottom phase. The protein of interest is unbound from the complex by changes in pH or by adding competing ligands or chemical agents (such as EDTA) to dissociate the protein-metal chelate complex (see Note 11). Once dissociation occurs, to the polymer phase containing the desired protein add high concentrations of salt, enough to form a new two-phase system with the residual PEG phase (e.g., to form a system consisting of PEG (40 , w w), and salt (16 , w w). The salt could be the same salt used in the initial two-phase formation (sodium sulfate) or another one (e.g., potassium phosphate), always mantaining a low pH (

N23dimercapt0pr0pyl Phthalamidic Acid

Chemical formulas of dithiol chelating agents. Fig. 2. Arsenic concentration of the brains of male New Zealand rabbits 24 h after administration of sodium 74 As-arsenite. Chelating agents was given 1 h after the arsenite. Although a number of DMPS preparations are available, DIMAVAL is the only one prepared by acceptable western pharmaceutical procedures. A number of reviews of this and other chelating agents such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, Chemet) are available (Aposhian, 1983 Aposhian and Aposhian, 1990 Angle, 1993 Aposhian et al., 1995 Aaseth et al., 1995 Kemper et al., 1990).

Types of Tissue Culture

Primary cell culture involves the isolation of cells from a tissue by disaggregation. Single-cell suspensions from tissues can be completed through either enzymatic digestion of extracellular matrix surrounding the cells - such as with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, trypsin, or collagenase - or mechanical disaggregation. These disaggregation procedures have the disadvantage of possibly injuring cells. If the cells of interest are adherent viable cells, they will be separated from nonviable cells when the medium is changed. Alternatively, viable cells can be separated from nonviable cells before culture by subjecting the single-cell suspension to density-gradient centrifugation (e.g., Hypaque). Primary cells have an advantage of possessing many of the biological properties that they possessed in vivo because they are not transformed. Primary cells, unlike cell lines, are not immortal and have only a finite survival time in culture before becoming senescent. Variant cells, however, as...

Detailed Procedures for Some Methods that Measure Oxidation Products in Plasma

Encountered in the past was ex vivo oxidation. This problem has been eliminated by adding BHT to specimens and reagents, including those for OxLDL and MDA-LDL. Except for studying susceptibility to oxidation, we collect specimens in EDTA purple type tubes and bring plasma or serum to 10 umol L BHT immediately after collection. The BHT is dissolved in methanol. Samples are stored at 70 C. BHT cannot be used for measuring susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation because the lipid-soluble substance enters the lipoproteins and cannot be removed by aqueous separation techniques. When measuring susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation, the samples are stored at 70 C with 1 mmol L EDTA that is removed prior to the test by gel filtration, dialysis, or heparin gel affinity chromatography. 4. Add 900 uL of FOX 2 reagent consisting of 880 mg BHT, 76 mg xylenol orange, 98 mg of ammonium iron(II) sulfate, and 1 mg mL EDTA dissolved in 1 L of methanol acetic acid (1 1 mixture). 2. Pipet 200...

Nonhydroxamic Acid Nonpeptidic MMP Inhibitors

Bayer found that the known anti-inflammatory agent, fenbufen, possesses modest inhibitory activity against gelatinase-A, and has prepared more potent analogs, such as 18 (46). This compound features a carboxylic acid zinc binding group and a cyclic imide P1 substituent. A large P1' b iphenyl group ensures selectivity for the deep-pocket MMPs. A variety of nonpeptidic natural-product MMP inhibitors have been discovered by screening. These include pycnidione (19 Merck 89), futoenone derivatives (e.g., 20 OAS-1148 OsteoArthritis Sciences) (90), betulinic acid (21 Sterling Winthrop 91), gelastatins (e.g., 22 92), and tetracyclines such as aranciamycin and minocycline, for which chemical modification (e.g., 23 CMT-1) has enabled the separation of MMP activity from antibiotic activity (93,94). Two of these compounds feature a carboxylic acid that may serve as a ZBG for others, it is possible that a ring hydroxyl and or carbonyl chelates the active site zinc(II) ion. In the case of the...

Deferasirox Chronic Iron Overload [1921

Iron overload is a potentially life-threatening cumulative toxicity that occurs frequently in patients who receive multiple blood transfusions for the treatment of certain types of chronic anemias such as thalassemia and sickle-cell disease, as well as for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. Progressive iron overload, if untreated, often causes injury to heart, liver, endocrine organs, joints, and other target cells and tissues. Iron overload is treated by administration of iron chel-ators, which mobilize the iron deposits into soluble complexes that can be excreted from the body. The current standard of care in iron chelation, deferoxamine (Desferal ), is effective, but typically requires subcutaneous infusion lasting eight to twelve hours per day, for five to seven days a week for as long as the patient continues to receive blood transfusions. In many patients, the need for transfusion and chelation therapy may be life-long. This has resulted in low patient acceptance of the...

Immunoassays for the Quantification of uPAR

The assay E2 was later inverted, using the high-affinity mAb R2 as catching antibody while the anti-suPAR pAb was employed for detection. This was also a kinetic ELISA. This ELISA, E4, quantifies uPAR(I-III), uPAR (II-III), and uPA uPAR complexes and gives a lower background signal in EDTA plasma samples compared to the E2 assay 41 . However, serum collections are more commonly used in clinical studies than plasma, and when serum samples were analyzed with E4, rather high-non-specific signals were occasionally observed. This problem was solved by adding heparin to the assay buffer, which prevented nonspecific signals. The exact mechanism is unknown but the highly charged heparin polyanion probably binds to the solid phase not allowing the molecules responsible for the unspecific signal to bind 122 . This kinetic assay, E5, uses the anti-suPAR pAb for catching and the mAb R2 for detection 40, 122 and like the E4 assay, it detects all uPAR forms except uPAR(I). The analytical...

Clinical Laboratory Tools to Diagnose Inflammation

Several studies revealed that no sex- or ethnicity-specific alterations are seen with CRP. No significant differences were found in the distribution of CRP concentration among Caucasian, African-American, and Mexican-American men 80 . A comparable CRP distribution was found in Japanese men, with slightly lower concentrations in Japanese women 81 . Indian Asians, who are racially at high-risk of developing metabolic syndrome X, have been shown to have a 17 higher geometric mean for CRP concentration than whites 82 . This difference was not, however, statistically significant when results were adjusted for central obesity and insulin resistance 82 . Most studies have reported that there is no relation between age and CRP concentration for individuals between healthy 20 and 70 years old 80, 83 . CRP concentration was found to vary slightly between age groups in women in a large study (n 15,770). Median CRP concentrations for women aged 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, and 75 years old were 1.31,...

Particle Agglutination

Particle Agglutination Test

Antibody molecules can be bound in random alignment to the surface of latex (polystyrene) beads (Figure 9-5). Because the number of antibody molecules bound to each latex particle is large, the potential number of antigen-binding sites exposed is also large. Antigen present in a specimen being tested binds to the combining sites of the antibody exposed on the surfaces of the latex beads, forming cross-linked aggregates of latex beads and antigen. The size of the latex bead (0.8 jim or larger) enhances the ease with which the agglutination reaction is recognized. Levels of bacterial polysaccharides detected by latex agglutination have been shown to be as low as 0.1 ng mL. Because the pH, osmolality, and ionic concentration of the solution influence the amount of binding that occurs, conditions under which latex agglutination procedures are carried out must be carefully standardized. Additionally, some constituents of body fluids, such as rheumatoid factor, have been found to cause...

Specimens Not Requiring Decontamination

Pleural fluid should be collected in sterile ag . coagulant (1 mg mL ethylenediaminetetraacetic ack EDTA or 0.1 mg mL heparin), If the fluid become clotted, it should be liquefied with an equal volume oM sputolysin and vigorously mixed. To lower the speclffP gravity and density of pleural fluid, transfer 20 mL to sterile 50-mL centrifuge tube and dilute the specimen M filling the tube with distilled water. Invert several times' to mix the suspension and centrifuge at 3600x g for 30 J minutes. The supernatant should be removed, and the sediment should be resuspended for smear and culture

Specimen Preservation

Available, so organisms in small amounts of bone marrow or synovial fluid are not overwhelmed by the concentration of SPS. Heparin is also a commonly used anticoagulant, especially for viral cultures, although it may inhibit growth of gram-positive bacteria and yeast. Citrate, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraaceticadd), or other anticoagulants should not be used for microbiology, because their efficacy has not been demonstrated for a majority of organisms. It is the microbiologist's job to make sure the appropriate anticoagulant is used for each procedure. One generally should not specify a color ( yellow-top ) tube for collection without specifying the anticoagulant (SPS), because at least one popular brand of collection tube (Vacutainer, Becton, Dickinson and Company) has a yellow-top tube with either SPS or ACD (trisodium dtrate dtric add dextrose) ACD is not appropriate for use in microbiology.

Miscellaneous Matters

Within a clot, their presence may go undetected. Thus, blood drawn for culture may be either inoculated directly into the blood culture broth media or into a sterile blood collection tube containing an anticoagulant for transport to the laboratory for subsequent inoculation. Heparin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (BDTA), and citrate inhibit numerous organisms and are nor recommended for use. Sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS, Liquoid) in concentrations of 0.025 to 0.03 is the best anticoagulant for blood. As a result, the most commonly used preparation in blood culture media today is 0.025 to 0.05 SPS. In addition to its anticoagulant properties, SPS is also anticomplementary and antiphagocytic and interferes with the activity of some antimicrobial agents, notably aminoglycosides, SPS, however, may inhibit the growth of a few microorganisms, such as some strains of Neisseria spp Gardnerella vaginalis, Streptobacillus Moniliformis, and all strains of Peptostreptococcus anaerobhts....

Noncompetitive inhibitors

Deferoxamine (DFO, desferrioxamine), a bacterial siderophore isolated from Streptomyces is a potent multidentate iron binder and has been used clinically for the treatment of iron overload and toxicity. Prior to the discovery of the PHD enzymes, DFO was found to increase EPO RNA and HIF-1a levels in Hep3B cells 20 . Additionally, DFO administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to female mice at a dose of 200 mg kg showed an increase in EPO mRNA in the kidneys after 22 h, but this effect was transient and lost upon chronic (5 day) dosing. Acclimatization to hypoxia is known to protect the heart from damage due to ischemia reperfusion (I R) injury. In rats, DFO has been shown, via HIF-1a stabilization, to simulate hypoxia and protect cardiomyocyte function after I R 21 . High blood glucose has been shown to produce a reactive metabolite, methylglyoxal, responsible for impairment of HIF-1a binding to the transcription factor p300, thus reducing gene transcription in diabetic models 22 . DFO...

Protocols for the Two Plasmid Rescue System

Solution I 10 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, 50 mM glucose, 25 mM Tris, pH 8.0, prepared from sterile stock solutions. 7. TE 10 mM Tris, pH 8.0,1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, autoclave sterilized. 9. Pronase-SDS solution 0.5 mg mL pronase (above) in 0.5 SDS, 10 mM Tris, pH 7.4, 10 mM EDTA pH 8.0.

Options for Monitoring Copper Load

This figure illustrates the time scale and extent of the rise in the serum ceruloplasmin concentration recorded in response to chelation therapy in four patients with Wilson's disease patients P.C and D.C are identical twins. In all, 11 such patients were observed. Fig. 2. This figure illustrates the time scale and extent of the rise in the serum ceruloplasmin concentration recorded in response to chelation therapy in four patients with Wilson's disease patients P.C and D.C are identical twins. In all, 11 such patients were observed.

Pathways of Glucose Mediated Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Neuropathy

The intellectual challenge to basic and clinical scientists exploring the pathogenesis of DPN is the identification and characterization of the important initiators, compartments, and mediators common to various pathogenetic hypotheses. These common elements may serve as a linchpins around which to array and perhaps unify otherwise competing pathogenetic mechanisms. Glucose-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may subserve this purpose (Fig. 1). Autooxidation of glucose, catalyzed by trace amounts of free transition metals such as iron and copper (26), generate ROS in vitro (27), and metal chelating agents to preserve normal nerve conduction velocity

Conclusion On Stem Cells

Change embryos over from medium G1 into G2. It is essential that embryos be washed well from G1 into G2, as components in the G1 such as EDTA have detrimental effects on the development of the blastocyst. Therefore, it is essential to wash embryos in a handling medium (containing amino acids see chapter 2) before culture in medium G2. Sodium pyruvate Stock E X100 stock use for 3 months EDTA

Characterization of Viral DNA

To verify the presence of mutations and to confirm the integrity of the viral DNA by DNA sequencing and restriction endonuclease digestion, dialyze a 0.5- to 1-mL aliquot of the purified virus stock for several hours (or overnight) against a large volume of PBS or Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer. Change buffer twice.


Of legitimate concern is the question of whether oxidation products found in blood or plasma are actually artifacts occurring due to atmospheric exposure or due to other sources of ex vivo oxidation during isolation and work-up rather than in vivo oxidation. As has been discussed, this problem has been reduced because current procedures call for adding antioxidants such as BHT and EDTA to blood or plasma immediately upon collection of the sample and addition of these antioxidants to the test reagents during analysis to reduce aberrant oxidation. Moreover, findings showing OxLDL and other oxidation products in human arteriosclerotic lesions and increased concentrations of oxidation products in the blood of patients both at high risk for and with arteriosclerosis, as compared to those without, certainly support the view that oxidation products are not simply an artifact of isolation. As a result, it is generally accepted that, to some extent, these oxidation products are a true...


Lysis buffer 1 M sorbitol 100 mM sodium citrate, pH 5.8 50 mM ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), pH 8.0 2 -mercaptoethanol and 500 U mL lyticase (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). 4. Proteinase buffer 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5 50 mM EDTA, pH 7.5 0.5 sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 1 mg mL proteinase K (Sigma Aldrich). 9. TE buffer 10 mM Tris-Cl, pH 7.5 1 mM EDTA. 14. 50X TAE buffer 242 g of Tris, 57.1 mL of acetic acid, and 100 mL of 0.5 M EDTA, pH 8.0 add H2O to 1 L.


In test tubes (i.e., closed system unpublished data) containing 1 g air-dried autoclaved Cecil Ap - horizon soil (pH 5.0), 82 pg p-coumaric acid, Hoagland's solution (all solutions adjusted to pH 5.0), and soil extract for inoculum (total of 1.5 ml) the average linear transformation rates for p-coumaric acid over 48 hr, once microbial utilization was evident, were 3.6 x 10-4 + 1.7 x 10-4 picomole CFU of p-coumaric acid utilizing bacteria h, about 130 times slower than what was observed for the mean utilization in the steady-state continuous flow system. The CFU of p-coumaric acid utilizing bacteria g soil in the test tube system averaged 1.46 x 108 over the 48 h interval. Initial CFU of p-coumaric acid utilizing bacterial populations g soil 24 hr after addition of inoculum were 105 + 15. Utilization of p-coumaric acid by microbes in the test tubes was determined by 0.25 M EDTA (pH 7.0) extractions at 6 h intervals and HPLC analyses.2 CFU for bacteria that utilized p-coumaric acid as a...

Diffusion Confusion

Anionic extracellular polymeric substances can also bind and sequester toxic cationic heavy metals. Metal chelation has been demonstrated for secreted polymeric molecules from a number of different microorganisms, including Bacillus licheniformis, Xanthomonas campestris, and freshwater-sediment bacteria (Kaplan et al. 1987 McLean et al. 1990 Mittelman and Geesey 1985 Teitzel and Parsek 2003). Thus, adsorption of positively charged antimicrobial agents by anionic matrix components appears to be an effective survival tool employed by certain bacteria.

Viral Titering

Stained blue cells are counted, and expression titer is calculated and represented as blue-forming units per milliliter (bfu mL). For transduction titers, infection of confluent monolayers is carried out as described above, but following the overnight incubation, monolayers are processed for total DNA. Briefly, cells are lysed in 100 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.8 and 0.2 Triton X-100. An equal volume of 2X digestion buffer (0.2 M NaCl, 20 mM Tris-Cl, pH 8, 50 mM EDTA, 0.5 sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 0.2-mg mL proteinase K) is added to the remainder of the lysate and the sample is incubated at 56 C for 4 h. Samples are processed further by one phenol chloroform, one chloroform extraction, and a final ethanol precipitation. Total DNA is quantitated using a spec-trophotometer, and 50 ng of DNA is analyzed in a PE7700 quantitative PCR reaction using a designed lacZ-specific primer probe combination multiplexed with an 18S rRNA-specific primer probe set. The lacZ probe sequence is


For the purposes of this review, we will attempt to classify inhibitors of 2-OG dioxygenases into either one of two categories general iron chelators or structural mimics of 2-OG. While both classes of inhibitors functionally block the activity of these enzymes, typically in a dose-dependent manner, only the latter are viewed as competitive inhibitors possessing enough target protein selectivity to act as relatively nontoxic, potent therapeutics. Furthermore, due to the limited knowledge of the mode of enzyme binding, if any, of the iron chelators, we will attempt to classify compounds as noncompetitive if they contain iron chelation motifs and are not either direct analogs of 2-OG or derived from analogs of 2-OG, although ensuing studies may prove otherwise.

Evidence collection

The methods used for collection will vary depending on the type of sample. Dry stains and contact marks on large immovable items are normally collected using a sterile swab that has been moistened with distilled water 9, 10 in other cases, scraping or cutting of material may be more appropriate. Lifting from the surface using high quality adhesive tape is an alternative method for collecting epithelial cells 11 . Liquid blood can be collected using a syringe or pipette and transferred to a clean sterile storage tube that contains anticoagulant (EDTA), or by using a swab or piece of fabric to soak up the stain, which should be air dried to prevent the build up of microbial activity 4 . Liquid blood can also be applied to FTA paper that is impregnated with chemicals to prevent the action of microbial agents and stabilize the DNA.

CsCl Gradient

Use Beckman 14 x 95-mm Ultraclear tubes (Fullerton, CA, cat. no. 344060) in an SW40Ti swing-out rotor. Prepare the gradient by layering the following solutions it is easier to put the glycerol in first, then underlay it with the p 1.32 CsCl, underlay this with the p 1.45 CsCl, and finally to overlay the virus. Use 2 mL of p 1.45 CsCl, 3 mL of p 1.32 CsCl, 2 mL of 40 glycerol, and approx 7 mL of virus prep. If necessary, fill up tube with 10 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0. Centrifuge at 80,000g for 90 min at 4 C.


Numerous theories have been proposed regarding thalidomide' s mechanism of action. This included the existence of a toxic arene metabolite (10), a mutagenic effect resulting from intercalation of thalidomide into DNA (11,12), glutamate toxicity based on structural resemblance to glutamic acid (13), antagonism of B vitamins, and chelation of essential bivalent cations (for reviews of proposed mechanisms, see refs. 14-16). Many of these hypotheses have remained largely unproven and controversial (14,17), and arguments based on a mutagenic or a toxic effect are unlikely since the window of susceptibility is narrow, and the defects caused by thalidomide on the developing fetus are specific. In adults thalidomide exhibits little toxicity.

PCR inhibition

When analysing forensic samples a problem that can be encountered is inhibition of the PCR 29 . DNA extraction methods do not produce pure DNA, some chemicals will co-purify and in some cases inhibit the Taq polymerase. Potent inhibitors include haem compounds from blood 30-32 , bile salts and complex polysaccharides from faeces 33,34 , humic substances from soil 35 and urea from urine 36 . High concentrations of ions, in particular calcium and magnesium, can also act as potent inhibitors of the Taq polymerase 37 . EDTA is used in high concentrations for the isolation of DNA


Venous blood samples were collected from pilot study participants using 7-ml vacu-tainers containing EDTA as an anticoagulant (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ). Blood samples for preparation of serum were collected in 7 ml vacutainers SST with gel and clot activator (Becton Dickinson). Blood and serum samples were maintained at 4 C and shipped to North Carolina on frozen refrigerant packs.

Rapid DNA Extraction

For PCR-based mapping purposes, DNA was isolated from individual leaves of adult plants. One has to make sure that removal of the leaf does not cause severe damage to the plant, since seeds need to be collected from the adult plants. The leaf was homogenized with a metal pestle in a 1.5-ml tube after addition of 0.5 ml extraction buffer (7M urea, 300 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 1 N-laurylsacrosinate, 20 mM EDTA). After incubation at 37 C for 5 min, 500 lof phenol chloroform isopropanol (25 24 1) was added, centrifugal for 10 min, and the DNA was precipitated with isopropanol from the aeqnous phase. After washing with 80 ethanol, the DNA was resuspended in 30 l TE buffer.


Tetracyclines, especially doxycycline and minocycline are highly anti-inflammatory in many cell systems (Table 1). Neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis is inhibited through calcium chelation, blunting the migration of cells to the follicle (13). Granuloma formation in vitro (14) and in vivo (15) is inhibited with minocycline and doxycycline roughly 10-fold more active than tetracycline. In this model, macrolides and cephalosporines were inactive. Protein kinase C is inhibited (15), perhaps interfering with signal transduction. Generation of reactive oxygen species and the oxidative burst in neutrophils is decreased (16). Nitric oxide production is modulated (17). Matrix metalloprotease and collagenase activity is inhibited (18-20). In vivo, tetracyclines have been demonstrated to be highly active in treating purely inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, bullous pem-phigoid, and sarcoidosis (21). Nonantibiotic derivatives of doxycycline have been recently developed that...

Oxoglutarate analogs

A series of 113 quinazolinethione inhibitors of PHD (e.g., 3) have been disclosed that do not offer the possibility of making a frank salt bridge interaction with Arg383 33 . Claimed IC50 values for compounds in this series range from 1 to 100 nM in an SPA assay, with EC50 values for EPO release in Hep3B cells of 1-20 mM. Presumably, strong chelation to the active site Fe by the heterocycle and thione moieties compensates for the loss of the salt bridge binding energy. A pyrazolone 34 inhibitor series has recently been described. The IC50 (SPA assay) range for this series of over 180 compounds is given as 0.05-2.8 M. Limited structure-activity relationship (SAR) data show activity with a variety of simple azoles at the C4 position with N-triazolyl and N-imidazoyl groups evidently preferred in the pyrazolone series (e.g., 4, IC50 50 nM). Most of the SAR developed in this series relate to modification of the heteroaryl group at C2, which invariably is a substituted 2-pyridyl or...

Lysis Centrifugation

Wampole Tubes

Isolator consists of a stoppered tube containing saponin to lyse blood cells, polypropylene glycol to decrease foaming, SPS as an anticoagulant, EDTA to chelate calcium ions and thus inhibit the complement cascade and coagulation, and a small amount of an inert fluo-rochemical (Fluorinert, 3M Co., St. Paul, Minn) to cushion and concentrate the microorganisms during 30-minute centrifugation at 3000x g (Figure 52-6). After centrifugation, the supernatant is discarded, the sediment containing the pathogen is vigorously vortexed, and the entire sediment is plated to solid agar. Benefits of this system include the more rapid and greater recovery of filamentous fungi, the presence of actual colonies for direct identification and susceptibility testing after initial incubation, the ability to quantify the colony-forming units present in the blood, rapid detection of polymicrobial bacteremia, dispensing with the need for a separate antibiotic-removal step, the ability to choose spedal media...