Co2

Clostridium sticklandii

Peptostreptococcus anaero-bius

Hydrogen consumers Acetitomaculum ruminis

Desulfovibrio ruminis

Methanobrevibacter bryantii Methanosarcina barkeri Wolinella succinogenes

Other nutritional specialists Acidaminococcus fermentans Anaerovibrio lipolytica Oxalobacter formigenes Succiniclasticum ruminis Synergistes jonesii Veillonella parvulae

  • Pep, AA + Pep, AA
  • H2 + CO2, Hx

fumarate + H2, formate, or H2S

CH4 CH4 Suc

For, CO2

Pro, CO2

Probably not an important H2 consumer in the rumen Produces H2 from EtOH and Lac in presence of methanogens Autotrophic

Autotrophic, methylotrophic Can also reduce inorganic nitro compounds (e.g.,

NOf)

Detoxifies TAA Detoxifies oxalate Detoxifies mimosine

"AA, amino acids; Arg, arginine; Cd, cellodextrins (except where indicated, glucose also fermented); DHP, 2,3- and 3,4-dihydroxypyridinediols; EtOH, ethanol; F, fructose; For, formate; G, glucose; G2, cellobiose; Glu, glutamate; Gol, glycerol; His, histidine; Hx, most common hexose sugars; L, lactose; Lac, lactate; MeOH, methanol; P, pectin; Pep, peptides; Prot, protein; TG, triglycerides; X, xylose; Xd, xylodextrins; Xn, xylan. b Ac, acetate; BCVFAs, branch-chain volatile fatty acids (isobutyrate, isovalerate, 2-methylbutyrate); But, butyrate; EtOH, ethanol; For, formate; Lac, lactate; Pro, propionate; Suc, succinate.

c Includes C. cellobioparum, C. chartatabidium, C. lochheadii, C. longisporum, C. polysaccharolyticum. A few of these species also produce ethanol. d Stain gram negative but phylogenetically related to gram positive eubacteria. e Abundant in ovine rumen but not bovine rumen.

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