tubes so that scrapers are not needed; therefore, little damage is done to the integrity of the fruit. Yet, microbial cells are efficiently and effectively destroyed.
Processing in open kettles permits heating to a maximum of a few degrees above 100°C (sugar in the fruit raises the boiling point) and extends needed holding time to at least 20 min. Volatile substances are able to escape the fruit, changing the flavor, and color usually darkens. Shelf life is often short, and refrigeration is needed to preserve the product.
Typical microbial specifications for fruit flavorings follow:
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