Fluid milk and whey are perishable dairy products that require proper cooling and handling to maintain their freshness and quality. However, milk and whey solids may be preserved for future use by various methods, the most common of which is concentration by removing water, using either heat or membrane methodology, followed by drying. Dairy products commonly manufactured through the use of one or more of these processes are evaporated milks, condensed and sweetened condensed milks, dry milks, condensed whey products, and dry whey products. Emphasis in this chapter is given to the major products and similarities are made to other closely related products.
All evaporated milks and most condensed, sweetened condensed, and dry milk products are manufactured using grade A raw milk (U.S. Public Health Service, 1997). In some areas of the United States, condensed and dry whey products also are made entirely from raw milk meeting grade A requirements. Overall, however, a lesser quantity of condensed and dry whey products is manufactured using grade A milk. In those instances, milk that meets U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) requirements (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1972) is used. Current estimates (D. R. Spomer, personal communication, 2000) are that 3% of the U.S. milk supply is non-grade A and that approximately 5% of domestic manufactured dairy products (condensed and dry milks, condensed and dry wheys, cheese, and butter) are made from milk meeting USDA requirements. All milk and whey used to manufacture concentrated and dry milk and whey products are pasteurized (see Chapter 2).
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