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Incubation: Incubate for 14-16 h at 22°C, pH 4.5 i

Package and cool to 10°C

Figure 5 Steps for the manufacture of sour cream. (From Kosikowski and Mistry, 1997.)

to syneresis and proteolytic activity. The use of a starch-based texturizing agent has also been suggested (Dunn and Finocchiaro, 1997). This agent consists of an insoluble microparticle (titanium dioxide), xanthan gum, and pregelatinized starch. Commercial milk or egg protein-based microparticulated products used as fat replacers have application in reduced-fat sour cream production (Singer et al., 1992) (Fig. 6). The aforementioned procedures provide adequate body to low-fat sour cream, but development of proper balanced flavor is also important. Flavor-delivery systems have been developed that consist of fat globules (Singer et al., 1993) or polyhydroxyalkanoates (Yalpani, 1993) in which large amounts of fat-soluble flavor compounds are included. When these systems are incorporated into low-fat and fat-free sour cream, the fat-soluble flavor compounds are released and complement other compounds that are produced by the starter bacteria.

1. Starter Organisms and Product Defects

Most of the culture issues discussed previously for cultured buttermilk apply to sour cream as well. As with most fermented milk products, good-quality sour cream can keep for a long time (4 weeks) under refrigeration, because the high-

Preparation of mix: Blend 3x ultrafiltered skim milk (51.4%), nonfat dry milk (5.4%), 14% fat cream (6.6%), gelatin (0.2%), sodium citrate (0.1%), water (26.1%)

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