Itchy Scalp Free Forever
Dandruff (known medically as seborrheic dermatitis), the scaling and sloughing of the skin on the scalp, usually occurs during adolescence and adult life, reaching its peak severity at about age 20. In a person with dandruff, small white or gray scales accumulate on the surface of the scalp. The scales detach from the scalp, falling among the hairs and on the shoulders. Doctors once suspected that a yeast infection may have been the cause of most cases of dandruff, but current evidence shows that no microorganisms have a role in its development. The best method of treating dandruff is shampooing with an antidandruff shampoo that contains selenium sulfide, zinc, or tar. After removal with a shampoo, however, the scales often form again in 4 to 7 days. If your dandruff is severe, see your doctor, who may prescribe an antidandruff shampoo. Daily shampooing will help prevent dandruff. Ask your doctor to recommend an over-the-counter hydrocortisone cream or ointment to help relieve itching...
CATEGORY B consists of symptomatic conditions HIV-related clinical symptoms are indicative of a defect in cell-mediated immunity and often manifest as candidiasis (oral thrush), seborrhoeic dermatitis, hairy leukoplakia, yellow nails (fungus) and multidermatomal varicella-zoster. Constitutional symptoms such as fever, diarrhoea, night sweat, fatigue and malaise can be seen in patients lacking criteria for AIDS definition. The term 'slim disease' is used in certain African countries for chronic HIV infections.
Resistance to polyene antifungals is rare and studies have shown amphotericin B resistance, whether primary or secondary, to almost always be associated with a decrease or complete absence of ergosterol in fungal membranes 14-17 . The incidence of primary or intrinsic resistance to amphotericin B is relatively limited but such resistance can be demonstrated by yeasts such as Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida lusitaniae, and C. guilliermondii, as well as filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus terreus, Scedosporium apiospermum, and Fusarium species. Secondary, or acquired, resistance to amphotericin B during or following amphotericin B therapy appears to be uncommon as 'breakthrough' candidemias in patients treated with amphotericin B are rarely noted 18, 19 . A recent study in 4 US children's hospitals suggested that amphotericin B resistance among C. parapsilosis isolates causing can-didemia in children may represent an emerging threat 9 .
Other frequently encountered samples include seminal fluid, which is of prime importance in sexual assault cases saliva that may be found on items held in the mouth, such as cigarette butts and drinking vessels, or on bite marks and epithelial cells, deposited, for example, as dandruff and in faeces. With the increase in the sensitivity of DNA profiling the recovery of DNA from epithelial cells shed on touching has also become possible 2 . Hairs are naturally shed, and can also be pulled out through physical contact and can be recovered from crime scenes. Naturally shed hairs tend to have Epithelial cells - shed skin cells Saliva Dandruff Clothing Cigarette butts Drinking vessels food Urine Vomit Faeces Touch DNA
The epidermis forms an effective barrier, however, the hair canal, the distal ORS of the hair follicle, and the pilosebaceous duct constitute major ports of entry for microbial invasion in humans and harbor a rich residential microflora such as P. acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Demodex folliculorum, and Malassezia furfur. The distal ORS and the pilosebaceous duct are also characterized by many features of innate and adaptive immunological activity such as classical and nonclassical MHC class 1 expression, ICAM-1 expression, and the presence of intraepithelial Langerhans cells and perifollicular macrophages (28-30). It is of considerable interest, therefore, that this area of the pilosebaceous unit is also a hot spot in the development of acne vulgaris lesions.
A few reports have addressed the issue of secondary infection caused by fungal infections, such as Pityrosporum ovale, in which investigators have advocated the use of topical agents such as Sebulex or Selsun shampoo, to fight fungal growth. Others have recommended the use of oral antifungal agents when fungal organisms are documented or highly suspected. Experience to date is relatively empiric and not well established.
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