Guilt Free Desserts
Chapter 1, ''Microbiology of the Dairy Animal,'' contains more information on Escherichia coli 0157 H7 and a discussion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Chapter 2, ''Raw Milk and Fluid Milk Products,'' has been rewritten by new authors and contains much information not found in the first edition. New bacterial standards for dried milk products appear in Chapter 3, ''Concentrated and Dry Milks and Wheys.'' Chapter 4, ''Frozen Desserts,'' includes information on sherbet, sorbet, and ice cream novelties. Chapter 5, ''Microbiology of Butter and Related Products,'' addresses current industrial practices and includes numerous figures. Chapter 6, ''Starter Cultures and Their Use,'' discusses isolation and enumeration of lactic acid bacteria.
Whereas confidential reports from industry laboratories indicate that it is not unusual to find listeriae in environmental samples, it is unusual to find them in finished product. The rationale for this is that hygienic practices common to the frozen desserts industry are effective in preventing transfer of pathogens from the environment to pasteurized product. FDA enforcement reports for the years 1997-1999 record six recalls of ice cream and frozen yogurt products because of potential contamination with L. monocytogenes (FDA Enforcement Reports, In contrast, there were 14 recalls of cheeses and cheese products because of contamination with L. monocytogenes. During the same time, there were recalls of frozen desserts for the reasons cited and of the following numbers, respectively undeclared or unspecified nut ingredient, 16 undeclared color additive, 7 undeclared egg ingredient, 6 undeclared wheat or corn flour, 5 environmental contaminants (metal, calcium chloride, and ammonia), 4....
The most important process in any dairy plant is pasteurization, because safety of the product depends on successful performance of this lethal heat treatment. Standards set for time and temperature of heating ice cream mixes (Table 1) are adequate to kill vegetative forms of pathogenic microorganisms that may be found in frozen dessert mixes. Residual spores of pathogenic bacteria are not Table 1 Minimal Times and Temperatures Required for Pasteurization of Frozen Dessert Mixes Table 1 Minimal Times and Temperatures Required for Pasteurization of Frozen Dessert Mixes
There is no federal standard for counts of bacteria in frozen desserts in the United States. However, most states enforce standards for coliform bacteria at less than or equal to 10 g and for standard plate count at 50,000 g. One state enforces a maximum standard plate count of 20,000 g. Approximately 14 states permit coliform counts of up to 20 g for bulky flavored ice creams. These are products to which large amounts of flavorings, fruits, and nuts are added. Because many of these items are added after freezing, the chances of contamination with coliform bacteria is considerably greater than with plain ice creams. With the recent knowledge that microbial environmental contaminants include Listeria, it is prudent for manufacturers to consider the presence of coliform bacteria in ice cream as
Tests for microbiological quality and safety of frozen desserts and their ingredients are described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (Marshall, 1993), the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (Vanderzant and Splittstoesser, 1992), and the Official Methods of Analysis (Cuniff, 1999). Tests most relied on to reflect overall microbiological As given in Standard Methods for the Examination ofDairy Products (Marshall, 1993), the agar method for enumerating coliform bacteria in ice cream products calls for making a 1 2 or 1 10 dilution and distributing 10 mL of this dilution equally into three Petri dishes to which is added Violet Red Bile Lactose Agar. Matushek et al. (1992) showed that dilution of ice cream produced more accurate results than did direct plating. The major reason for inaccuracies with the direct plating method was atypical colonies produced with the directly plated samples. Non-lactose-fermenting bacteria can ferment...
Bulk condensed milk may be manufactured using either whole or skim milk. Typically, milk is pasteurized and then concentrated by heat in an evaporator until the product contains 40-45 total solids. Following concentration, the product may be dried or distributed for use as a concentrated milk. A detailed processing scheme for condensed milk is shown in Fig. 1. Most condensed whole milk is used as an ingredient in chocolate confectionery, bakery, or dairy (frozen dessert) industries condensed skim milk not subsequently dried is used primarily within the dairy industry (American Dairy Products Institute, 1999a). These products are not commercially sterile and, when intended for shipment as an ingredient, they immediately are cooled and continuously held at temperatures below 7 C (45 F). Microorganisms surviving the heat treatments usually are thermodu-ric or thermophilic types. Under proper handling and storage conditions, these organisms grow slowly, if at all, and are not expected to...
Ice cream and other frozen desserts are protected from spoilage by very low temperatures of preparation and storage however, major ingredients used to make these products are prone to spoilage and several ingredients are added after the last lethal process, pasteurization, has been completed. Therefore, microorganisms are of considerable importance to the frozen desserts industry. Pathogens of greatest importance are L. monocytogenes and S. Enteritidis. The most threatening spoilage bacteria are psychrotrophs in the refrigerated dairy products and yeasts and molds in fruits and nuts. Dry ingredients and flavoring and colors are likely to contribute bacterial spores, but they seldom are of concern because of
600 Chocolate Recipes
Within this in cookbook full of chocolate recipes you will find over 600 Chocolate Recipes For Chocolate Lovers.