Pathways of Glucose Mediated Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Neuropathy

Obrosova, Martin J. Stevens, and Eva L. Feldman University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan Diabetic distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DPN), the most common peripheral neuropathy in developed countries (1-3), affects up to 6070 of diabetic patients (4) and is the leading cause of foot amputation (5). The typical slowing of nerve conduction and the advancing distal symmetrical sensorimotor deficits are thought to reflect an underlying slowly...

Molecular Basis of Insulin Action and Insulin Resistance in Peripheral Tissues

To understand the molecular basis of insulin resistance (whether primary or secondary) in muscle and fat cells, it is imperative to gain knowledge of the normal mechanisms of insulin action. In these tissues, insulin stimulates glucose uptake by rapidly mobilizing preexisting glucose transporters (primarily the GLUT4 isoform) from an intracellular storage organelle (or vesicle) to the plasma membrane (5,6). This is achieved by a series of signals elicited from the receptor, which are detected...

Contents

Series Introduction (Lester Packer and Enrique Cadenas) Hi 1. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants The Antioxidant Network, a-Lipoic Acid, and Diabetes 1 Lester Packer 2. Oxidative Stress in Diabetes Why Does Hyperglycemia Induce the Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species 17 Peter Rosen, Xueliang Du, and Guang-Zhi Sui 3. Oxidative Stress Markers in Human Disease Application to Diabetes and to Evaluation of the Effects of Antioxidants 33 Barry Halliwell 4. Plasma Lipid Hydroperoxide and Vitamin E...

D 2d Da

Figure 3 Reversal of sciatic nutritive endoneurial blood flow (A) and motor conduction velocity (B) deficits in diabetic rats by treatment with the probucol analogue BM 150639. Groups (n 9-10) C, nondiabetic control ID, 2D, 1-month, and 2-month streptozotocin-diabetic DA, 1-month untreated diabetes followed by 1-month BM 150639 (400 mg kg day) treatment DAN, as for DA but cotreated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, A' -nitro-L-arginine (10 mg kg day) during the second month. Data are...

Iioxidative Stress And Iddm

Recent studies have indicated that ROS such as nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion radical (02 ), and hydrogen peroxide (H202) are generated by MO in islets or induced in 3-cells by cytotoxic cytokines secreted from immunocytes (3,4) (Fig. 1). It has been shown that the expression of inducible nitric oxide Figure 1 A proposed mechanism of pancreatic (3-cell destruction by oxidative stress in autoimmune diabetes and drug-induced diabetes. Figure 1 A proposed mechanism of pancreatic (3-cell...