At Home Drug Withdrawal

Sobriety Success

The dependence on sobriety is defined as the state of sobriety. When a person is sober, they can live on a daily basis without their thoughts and behaviors being controlled by substance dependence. They do not feel obliged to use it because they manage to live without it. They see and appreciate so much the benefits of living without substance that they do not feel they have to use drugs or alcohol. Therefore, they refrain from using it to continue enjoying this new, healthier lifestyle. The success product of sobriety is a step-by-step manual for everyone. The product has been said to be beneficial for many people around the world. The reason why the product is gaining so much popularity among individuals. They see and appreciate so much the benefits of life without substance that they do not feel they have to use drugs or alcohol. Therefore, they refrain from using it to continue enjoying this new, healthier lifestyle. This strategy encourages you to maintain the long-term vision of recovery. Recognize that this is not a one-off thing, something you try for a few weeks to several months, then return to your previous life. You will be in recovery if you decide it's the life you want to live for the rest of your life. As such, there is no immediate timeline to which you must adhere, nor should you strive to achieve goals that you are clearly not ready to face. Continue reading...

Sobriety Success Summary


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Drug dependence and withdrawal

Withdrawal from nicotine, cocaine, opiates, and alcohol often leads to a negative emotional state and elevated levels of anxiety. These undesirable effects can sometimes be counteracted by increasing self-administration of the substance, which leads to relapse to the addicted state. External stressors can often lead to a relapse in abuse as well. Antagonists of CRF-R1 are increasingly being examined as potential treatments for addiction and the negative aspects of drug withdrawal 11 . The role of CRF-R2 in drug withdrawal and dependence is less well understood and will not be discussed here.

Acute Vs Chronic Aneurysms Cocainerelated Bleed Sites

The exact mechanism by which berry aneurysms form remains undetermined, but research indicates that propagation and rupture of the aneurysm are aggravated by hypertension and tachycardia (132). The drug most often associated with acute cerebrovascular events is cocaine. Intracerebral hemorrhages or SAHs are the most frequently observed cerebrovascular complications of this drug (123). Several mechanisms might be responsible for the cerebrovascular complications. Traditional teaching is that hypertension is the likely precursive factor in cocaine-induced aneurysmal rupture, and a sudden rise in systemic arterial pressure might cause hemorrhages, frequently in association with an underlying aneurysm or AVM. Recent reports have indicated that these patients might have underlying vascular malformations (133,134). Rupture of aneurysms and AVMs has been detected in up to half of the patients with hemorrhagic stroke due to cocaine abuse. In addition to stroke, cocaine seems to provoke...

Mechanisms of cocaine cardiotoxicity

Cocaine abuse induces coronary vasospasm 1-5 , myocardial infarction 6-8 , hypertension 9,10 , stroke 7,H , and fatal cardiac rhythm disorders, including ventricular fibrillation 12-15 , Chronic cocaine abuse has also been shown to cause dilated cardiomyopathy 16,17 , and left ventricular hypertrophy in normotensive cocaine users 18-20 , It is only since modern electrocardiographic techniques have come into widespread use that the effect of cocaine on cardiac rhythm has been effectively studied. These techniques were the first to demonstrate that cocaine produced severe intractable ventricular arrhythmias that resulted in death during routine nasal surgery 21 , Cocaine functions as a strong cardiac stimulant that potentiates the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by inhibiting both peripheral and central neuronal catecholamine uptake 22-24 , The resulting changes in cardiac autonomic neural balance may significantly contribute to the formation of arrhythmias, since increased...

National Institute On Drug Abuse Medications Development Program

Purpose The Division of Pharmacotherapies and Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse (DPMCDA) includes a Medications Development Program (MDP). The Medications Discovery and Toxicology Branch (MDTB), the Chemistry and Pharmaceutics Branch (CPB) within the Medication Program support a pre-clinical translational therapeutics program. Their mission is to develop medications for the treatment of drug abuse, and to facilitate the translation of basic research findings into pharmacotherapies. The program supports a full range of drug development activities from chemistry to INDA submission. The MDTB CPB also includes the pre-clinical Addiction Treatment Discovery Program (ATDP). The goal of the ATDP is to identify agents to treat drug dependence disorders. The ATDP supports both in vitro and animal efficacy evaluation as well as predicative safety testing at no charge. Tasks are accomplished primarily through contract resources within DPMC, as well as grants aimed at developing and evaluating...

Key Points Concerns In Patients Taking Cocaine

Myocardial ischemia is not uncommon in cocaine-abusing patients, and selective p2-blockade should be avoided because it may cause vasoconstriction and worsen the ischemia. 3. Cocaine sensitizes the cardiovascular system to the effects of endogenous catecholamines. Ketamine and pancuronium potentiate the cardiovascular toxicity of cocaine and should be avoided. 26. What is crystal methamphetamine and what are its properties This refers to the synthetic stimulant methamphetamine. Most methamphetamine users are white and young adult. Most users are male, but it is the most common drug of abuse among women. Use of methamphetamine is common among homosexual males, and there is a strong relationship between its use and having the human immunodeficiency virus. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. These effects are caused by release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. It is quite similar to cocaine in...

Concommitant Cocaine And Ethanol Consumption

A survey conducted in 1991, found that 9 million people in the US abuse cocaine and ethanol simultaneously 55 , The combined use of cocaine and ethanol appears to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality over either drug alone. Their simultaneous use increased the risk of drug-induced sudden death 18fold 56 , Deaths due to drug overdose involving the use of ethanol were associated with cocaine blood concentrations that were lower than those measured in subjects dying of cocaine overdose alone (900 vs. 2,800 mg L, respectively) 57 , This is suggestive of an additive or synergistic effect of ethanol on cocaine-induced catastrophic events 57 , Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for this synergistic effect. Since the combined use of both drugs in human volunteers produces a greater increase in heart rate than either substance alone, the combination may do more than either of its individual constituents to substantially increase the determinants of myocardial...

Cocaine Cardiotoxicity

As cocaine abuse has become widespread, the number of cocaine related cardiovascular events, such as angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia and infarction, cardiac myopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, and sudden death has increased substantially 1-15 , These occur in young subjects, a significant percentage of whom had no evidence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease on subsequent angiography 10,11,18-21 . Twice as many men as women experience cocaine related cardiac ischemic events, at least partly caused by a greater frequency of cocaine use in men. The concomitant use of cigarettes and or ethanol is pervasive, with up to 75 of cocaine users admitting to each. Although myocardial ischemia, infarction, and sudden death are most likely to occur in chronic cocaine users, they have been reported in first time users as well. These events can occur from any route of administration and with a large or small amount of the drug 3,4,8,9,20-29 , It is thought that the pathophysiology of...

Drug Dependence

The second observation of basic significance was the odd phenomenon of drug dependence, which was first noted for streptomycin in 1947 by Miller and Bohnhoff 30 . This finding seemed to be restricted to streptomycin, but was extensively investigated at the time, and was thought to offer clues to the problems of antibiotic resistance in general. Later, however, this puzzling finding would be fundamental to understanding the functioning of the ribosome, and rather specific to the mode of action of streptomycin. The history of this aspect of drug resistance emphasizes our inability to predict the future course of research and our failure to identify, beforehand, just where the likely advances will take us.


The primary action of cocaine (12) is binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and preventing reuptake of synaptic dopamine. Most drug strategies have focused on methods to reduce the effects of excess dopamine. These include partial antagonists at dopamine receptors, D3 agonists, or indirect modulation by interaction with the opioid, serotonin 32 , norepinephrine 20 , and sigma receptor systems 33 . To date there have been no drugs approved by the FDA for use in the treatment of cocaine abuse. Drugs previously approved by the FDA for other indications are under study by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) for the treatment of acute and chronic cocaine use in human clinical trials. The majority of these compounds modulate the concentration of dopamine or mechanisms involved in stress. Modafinil (13) is a stimulant drug that is approved for the treatment of narcolepsy. Modafinil binds weakly to DAT (IC50 6.4 p.M) and NET (IC50 35.6 mM) but not to SERT (IC50 > 500 p.M) and...

Discuss the effects of ephedrine and review common doses of this medication Give some examples of medications that

Ephedrine produces norepinephrine release, stimulating mostly A1 and B1 receptors the effects resemble those of epinephrine although they are less intense. Increases in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output are noted. Usual intravenous doses of ephedrine are between 5 and 25 mg. Repeated doses demonstrate diminishing response known as tachyphylaxis, possibly because of exhaustion of norepinephrine supplies or receptor blockade. Similarly, an inadequate response to ephedrine may be the result of already depleted norepinephrine stores. Ephedrine should not be used when the patient is taking drugs that prevent reuptake of norepinephrine because of the risk of severe hypertension. Examples include tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and acute cocaine intoxication. Chronic cocaine users may be catecholamine depleted and may not respond to ephedrine.

Dopamine reuptake inhibitors

Slow-onset, long duration dopamine reuptake inhibitors with reduced potential for substance abuse have been suggested as therapies for psychostimulant addiction 33-35 . A series of slow-onset, long duration N-alkyl analogues of methylphenidate were recently reported to have enhanced selectivity for the dopamine transporter 34 . A representative compound is 13, an RR SS diastereomer (DAT K 16 nM, SERT K 5900 nM, NET K 840 nM). In a locomotor activity assay in mice, 13 has a slow onset of activity (20-30 min) with peak activity occurring between 90 and 120 min. In contrast, both methyl-phenidate and cocaine are active within 10 min and reach peak activity within 30 min. In a prodrug approach, compound 30,640 (14) demonstrated potential for use as maintenance therapy in psychostimulant addiction treatment 35 . The N-demethylation of 14 provides indatraline, a potent triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor. Compound 14 showed cocaine-like effects, but with a slow-onset, long-lasting profile....

The Rationale for Ambulatory Monitoring

Besides the cost and resource concerns, LTAM proved to be far more convenient for most patients. In some centers, including our own, inpatient monitoring became primarily utilized for patients whose seizures could only be recorded in the setting of anticonvulsant drug withdrawal. It was also used when simultaneous video recording was essential for diagnosis or surgical evaluation or in the setting where invasive electrodes needed to be used.

New Developments in the Study of Corticotropin Releasing Factor

Introduction - Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) or hormone (CRH) is one of several neurohormones synthesized by specific hypothalamic nuclei in the brain and released into the portal system, which bathes the anterior pituitary. Here the peptide activates the transcription of the pro-opiomelanocortin gene resulting in release of ACTH and pendorphin from anterior pituitary cells. The fundamental role of CRF is to prepare the organism for an appropriate response to various stressors such as physical trauma, insults to the immune system and social interactions. CRF also has marked CNS effects by acting at higher centers in the brain, particularly cortical regions where there is a widespread distribution of CRF neurons. It is the hyper- or hyposensitivity of the system that can lead to human pathologies. Since this topic was last reviewed in Annual Reports (1), several other detailed accounts have appeared covering receptor structure and function (2), small molecule receptor...

Pharmacological Studies

Drug Addiction - There is evidence that CRF may play a role in the stress-induced relapse of drug abuse as well as the anxiety-like behaviors observed during acute drug withdrawal (9). Chronic cocaine administration in rats is anxiogenic and icv D-Phe12 CRF(12-41) attenuates the behavior, as characterized by the defensive burying paradigm (68). The compound 19 alleviated the symptoms associated with opiate withdrawal after chronic morphine, and blocked drug seeking behavior as measured through cocaine self administration (69, 70). Stress-induced relapse of alcohol seeking and opiate relapse was diminished by 19 but not antisauvigine-30 suggesting a CRFi role (71, 72).

Behavioral Pharmacology Models Of Addiction

As with many other psychiatric disorders, it is difficult to determine the exact neurobiological etiology of substance abuse. A distinct molecular target that is solely, individually, responsible for the addictive state is unknown making drug design an interesting challenge. Drug abuse research therefore relies heavily on the use of animal behavioral pharmacology models. The first stage of testing involves receptor-binding studies to determine affinity and selectivity toward a given receptor of interest followed by a functional assay to determine potency. These must be closely followed by behavioral pharmacology studies to determine the effect of the medication on various stages of the addiction that can be modeled in animals 13,14 . This model is a measure of the motivation for drug-seeking behavior based on cues (sound, light) that the animal has been trained to associate with the availability of a drug. In recovering cocaine and opioid addicts, a common cue that can initiate...

Partial Agonist Approach To Medication Development

Antagonist treatment has been used in opioid addiction (e.g., oral naltrexone) but the results have been mixed. There is a possibility that a depot form of naltrexone being developed for the treatment of alcoholism could be useful in the treatment of opioid addiction 15 . This chapter will focus on some recent developments in the treatment of narcotic (opioids) and stimulant (cocaine and methamphetamine) abuse. The National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) is performing the majority of medication development for narcotic and stimulant abuse. Several excellent reviews have been written on medication development for the treatment of drug dependence 18-24 .

Clinical Opportunities For

Conclusions - Identification of urocortin-ll, antisauvagine-30 and stresscopin should help elucidate the relative contributions of CRF2 to the CRF system. There continues to be advances in the understanding of the receptor structure and the SAR of small molecule CRF1 antagonists but completely novel structures away from the current, well-mapped area are still awaited. Unlike the CRF1 receptor, CRF2 appears to be reticent to small molecule intervention. Recent research has added to the understanding of the role of CRF in disease areas like drug addiction, eating disorders and IBS with some encouraging results in the clinical utility of CRF1 antagonists in the treatment of anxiety and depression.

Alcohol and Other Drugs

Drug Dependence A person who uses a drug for other than a recommended or prescribed purpose is said to be abusing that drug. Drug dependence (or addiction) is an uncontrollable craving for a particular substance, which can, in some cases, take over a person's life. A person who is psychologically dependent on a drug experiences emotional distress when the drug is withdrawn. Physical dependence means that the body has adapted to the presence of the drug, causing symptoms of withdrawal when deprived of it. Examples are cocaine and amphetamines. Some people are more susceptible than others to drug dependence for reasons that may include both genetic and environmental factors. Heavy use of any addictive drug may encourage the use of other drugs adolescents who use alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana are more likely than their peers who don't use these drugs to use cocaine or heroin eventually. In general, the younger people are when they start and the more types of drugs they use, the greater...

Unsafe Driving Habits

Never drive under the influence of alcohol. It slows your reaction times, distorts your vision, and impairs your judgment. And never use other psychoactive drugs (those that alter your mind or behavior, such as marijuana or methamphetamine) while driving. Be sure to read the labels on all prescription and over-the-counter medications for warnings about how they could affect your ability to drive.

Definitions of Antimalarial Drug Resistance

Drug abuse has certainly contributed to the development of resistances, and circumstantial evidence for its particular role are highlighted by the observation that resistance to chloroquine developed from different areas whose common denominator was the long-term use of this drug for either prophylaxis or treatment (Payne 1988). However, the appearance of resistance to drugs such as SP in areas with relatively low SP use suggests that other factors may also have a role in the spread of resistance in addition to drug pressure.

Etiologic Factors For Intracerebral Hemorrhage

An ICH, classified as either primary or secondary, can be caused by a variety of factors (Table 1). Primary ICH refers to spontaneous hemorrhage from systemic hypertension. Hypertensive ICH usually occurs in middle-aged to older patients, and the hemorrhage might be attributed to small aneurysmal dilatations on the small, perforating cerebral arteries. These aneurysms are usually multiple, tend to occur in arteries < 25 pm in diameter, and might attain a diameter of up to 2 mm. These microaneurysms are usually seen in hypertensive patients and are occasionally seen in normotensive patients and in those over 65 years of age. Secondary ICH can occur due to a variety of underlying structural abnormalities, including a ruptured cerebral aneu-rysm, arteriovenous malformation, other vascular malformation, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, tumors, trauma, and vasculitis. ICH can also occur secondary to coagulopathy that results from thrombocytopenia and anticoagulant therapy. Thrombolytic...

Findings From Genetic Studies In Adhd

5-HT1B knockout mice display an increased locomotor response to cocaine acquisition and alcohol intake, along with hyperactivity and aggressive behavior (103). The hyperloco-motion effect of this agonist is absent in the mouse lacking 5-HT1B, indicating that the agonist effect is mediated by this receptor. Hawi et al. (104) and Quist et al. (105) reported association between a 5-HT1B polymorphism (861G-C) and ADHD. The serotonin HTR2A is a G protein-coupled receptor functioning in signal transduction. Antagonism of 5HT2A has been shown to reduce dopamine-induced hyperactivity in mice (106,107). Hyperlocomotion induced by the noncompetitive W-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist (MK-801) in mice is attenuated by the nonselective 5-HT2A antagonist ritanserine and by the 5-HT2A selective antagonist MDL100907 (107). Several recent studies have investigated 5-HT2A markers for possible association with ADHD, with association reported by Quist et al. (106) and Levitan et al. (108) but not by Hawi...

Fetal Exposure to Alcohol and Illegal Drugs

The use of alcohol and other illegal substances during pregnancy exposes the developing fetus to neurological and other problems that have been studied despite difficulties in obtaining a good scientific sample from which to make conclusions that will generalize to other populations. Most of the pregnant women and subsequent babies born to them that are studied come from lower socioeconomic groups with poor nutrition, lack of access to good health care, disenfranchisement from the majority culture, and other unhealthy and unsafe lifestyle problems, in addition to the exposure to various drugs, called polysubstances in the published articles. Therefore, it is difficult to know how much of the impact to attribute to the prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs, particularly cocaine and crack, that have been studied. Most children born into poverty are known to suffer disproportionately high rates of low birth rates, malnutrition, anemia, lead poisoning, and other childhood diseases...

Describe common findings of the history and physical examination in patients with valvular heart disease

A history of rheumatic fever, intravenous drug abuse, embolization in different organs, genetic diseases such as Marfan syndrome, heart surgery in childhood, or heart murmur should alert the examiner to the possibility of valvular heart disease. Exercise tolerance is frequently decreased patients may exhibit signs and symptoms of heart failure, including dyspnea, orthopnea, fatigue, pulmonary rales, jugular venous congestion, hepatic congestion, and dependent edema. Angina may occur in patients with a hypertrophied left ventricle, and atrial fibrillation frequently accompanies enlargement of the atria.

Therapeutic Applications of Nonpeptidic 6Opioid Agonists

More recently, the targeting of 8-opioid receptor agonists to modulate antinociceptive activity has emerged as an attractive alternative (7). Cloned and expressed 8-opioid receptors are known to couple to both L-type Ca2+ and K+ channels through Gi proteins (8). Two pharmacologically distinct subtypes of the 8-receptor (designated 81 and 82) have been identified, based upon both in vitro and in vivo studies. While the full pharmacological functions of these receptors remains to be elucidated, both are implicated to play a role in neuropathic pain regulation (9). In contrast to the morphine-like -opioids, 8-opioid agonist activity produces few adverse effects on respiratory function and has significantly lower potential for development of physical dependence (10, 11). In addition, alternative potential therapeutic applications of this class are beginning to emerge. For example, 8-agonists have been shown to possess immunostimulative effects, in contrast to the immunosuppressive effects...

Analgesia and anaesthesia

Both 'cardiac' (high-dose opioid) general anaesthesia and epidural anaesthesia have been used successfully for Caesarean section. The major concerns with general anaesthesia are uncontrolled hypertensive response to tracheal intubation, risks of potentially life-threatening arrhythmias (particularly in cocaine users) and need for postoperative ventilatory support because of the high doses of opioids used.

How does MS affect sexual function

Fatigue is a major symptom in MS and contributes to sexual dysfunction, as it does in healthy men and women. Modification of lifestyle to conserve energy and the use of amantadine or other medications to increase energy are helpful. Amphetamine (speed), Ritalin, and cocaine are dangerous and should not be considered. Patients should be cautious of the plethora of products flooding the health food market because some of these agents could actually contain harmful ingredients.

Infection with Attenuated Strains

With the advent of molecular biological techniques, an entire new array of possibilities has been introduced, including a T. gondii drug-addiction-gene that allowed propagation of the vaccine strain in the presence of the drug required for vaccine production, but prevented the vaccine strain from further proliferation in the mammalian host, while inducing protective immunity 51 . Although, at present, no such vaccine is available but there are clear opportunities for this type of methodology.

Sequestration For Defense And Communication

Specialists feeding on either plants or animals that are fortified with toxic alkaloids are unpredictable in terms of how these natural products are processed. For example, nicotine, as previously mentioned, is degraded or rapidly eliminated by larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta37 Nicotine is not known to be stored by any tobacco-feeding insects and may simply be too reactive to be easily sequestered in tissues. Of course, the inability of these larvae to accumulate nicotine internally deprives them of a powerful defense, a development that must reflect the nonadaptive nature of this alkaloid for sequestration. Similarly, a tropane alkaloid, cocaine, is only sequestered in trace amounts after moth larvae, Elor a noyse , have fed on coca plants.5 The larvae of E. noyse excrete the alkaloid very rapidly, and the feces contains most of the ingested compound. Significantly, the adults are cryptically colored, which is consistent with a species that lacks protective defensive...

Subunit composition of nAChRs involved in nicotine addiction

Ko animals have also been used to investigate the role of nAChRs in the reinforcing properties of other addictive drugs, such as cocaine or morphine (Zachariou et al., 2001). Notably, p2 Ko animals fail to develop a place preference to a low concentration of cocaine (5 mg kg), which normally is effective in Wt animals. Yet, place preference to higher cocaine doses (10 mg kg) or to morphine is preserved in these mice. This finding is unlikely to be due to developmental compensations since mecamylamine treatment similarly disrupts cocaine-induced place preference in Wt animals. Rather, it has been proposed that in Wt mice, endogenous nicotinic transmission normally potentiates cocaine reinforcement through a tonic control of DA release in Nac. Unlike those of morphine, the reinforcing effects of cocaine are in part mediated through a direct blockade of DA reuptake. Cocaine reinforcement is thus critically dependent on the spontaneous release of DA. There are at least two ways by which...

First Taste of Research

The drug, bulbocapnine, was of great interest, because it could produce immobility that resembled patients with catatonic schizophrenia. We discovered that immobility induced by the drug could be interrupted by placing the rats in a pool of water where they would have to swim. Even when immobilized by bulbocapnine, they would begin to fight with each other in response to electrical shocks administered through bars in the bottom of their cages. This showed the difference between the effects of bulbocap-nine and anesthetic drugs. We also found that the catalepsy could be interrupted by having the cataleptic rats breath high concentrations of carbon dioxide. The same effect was observed with the administration of scopolamine, a drug which blocks the para-sympathetic nervous system, or cocaine. Audiogenic seizures, that could be produced in rats by loud noise, was not abolished by bulbocapnine. Thus, from the beginning, my research has been oriented toward the study of the biochemistry of...

Druginduced Parkinsonism

Is important to wait 3 months after withdrawal of medication before diagnosing drug-induced parkinsonism. The withdrawal of the suspected drug is usually followed 4-8 weeks later by the disappearance of clinical symptoms. In some cases, the parkinsonian symptoms, however, persist and these cases are suspected to have preclinical PD, in which the initial symptoms were triggered by the exposure to the dopamine receptor-blocking drug (76). There are a variety of drugs including dopam-ine depletors, dopamine blockers, antihypertensives such as methyldopa and amiodarone, calcium channel blockers such as flunarizine and cinnarazine, and serotonine selective reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, all of which can cause drug-induced parkinsonism. Drug-induced parkinsonism can be treated by withdrawal of the causative agent, but in some cases amantadine and levodopa have been useful (77). Drug-induced parkinsonism is associated with other involuntary movements including...

Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Although ICH is caused by many conditions, such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy, vascular malformations, aneurysms, anticoagulant use and coagulation disorders, tumors, hemorrhagic transformation of infarcts, and drug abuse, the prevalence of chronic hypertension in the ICH population implies that most patients will have a shifted autoregulatory curve at onset (19,26). Another reason for abnormal autoregulation is increased ICP, which causes reduced CPP (2,83). Both animal and human studies have reported CBF values close to the threshold of ischemia in the perihematoma region, where autoregulation is impaired (84,85). One study measured changes in regional CBF using SPECT following drug-induced BP reduction in 68 patients with hypertensive ICH in the thalamus and putamen (86). In the acute period (3 days after onset on average), mean CBF decreased only if MABP was lowered by more than 20 (86). In the chronic period, greater reductions in MABP were required to cause CBF reduction. Other...

Development Of The Dopamine Hypothesis Of Psychosis

The evidence relating dopamine to psychosis is well known, although it has usually been seen as supporting the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, rather than, more correctly, of the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis. The central aspects of the evidence from which this hypothesis developed are as follows Antipsychotic drugs are dopamine antagonists, acting at the D2 receptors. Psychomotor stimulant drugs, such as amphetamine or cocaine, which lead to increased release of dopamine from nerve terminals in active form can precipitate psychotic states in people who have no prior psychopathology if given in large doses or for long periods. Furthermore, repeated doses of stimulant drugs given to experimental animals lead to sensitization. That is, the threshold dose for stimulant action falls, and the effect produced by a given suprathreshold dose increases. People who are vulnerable to, or recently recovered from psychoses, appear to be in a similar sensitized state, because they can be...

Transmissionincubation Periodclinical Features

HTLV-I has a low infectivity and is transmitted vertically from mother to child and horizontally by blood transfusions, intravenous drug abuse or sexually. Transmission by drug abuse of HTLV-I and HTLV-II is an increasing problem in many areas. HTLV-I exists in striking clusters in Japan, central and South America, Africa and the Caribbean Islands. The virus is rare outside the endemic areas. Clinical manifestations of early infection have not been delineated, although cutaneous manifestations and febrile disease have been reported. A few infected individuals (1 in 2000 to 1 in 100) develop adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) after an average interval of 30 years.

Treatment Of Adolescents

Minimal disruption is caused to the patient's schooling - for example, dosing three or four times daily or attending the GUM clinic for daily injections may not be feasible. It is important to elicit a full drug history from patients, particularly with regard to alcohol and illicit drug use. The need for parental consent and the patient's need for confidentiality combine to form a complex issue that is covered in another part of this book.

Problemsspecial considerations

Problems may be related to the maternal effects of drug use, including acute intoxication, chronic organ impairment and the risk of HIV infection and endocarditis for intravenous drug users the control of drug use and withdrawal during pregnancy and labour and the effects of drug abuse on the fetus and neonate. Because delivery

Management options

If abusers of cocaine require general anaesthesia, pretreatment with antihyper-tensive drugs should be considered, since severe hypertension and arrhythmias may follow tracheal intubation. Labetalol has been suggested as the drug of choice since pure b-blockade may precipitate severe hypertension via unopposed a stimulation. Glyceryl trinitrate has also been used. Benzodiazepines have been recommended to reduce sympathetic activity. Drugs causing sympathetic

Prodrugs With Other Benefits

Therapeutically beneficial effects of controlled substances have not been fully utilized because of the potential for drug abuse through intravenous and nasal administrations. Efforts to deal with these issues using prodrugs have recently been reported. Dextroamphetamine (66) was derivatized to a peptidic prodrug NPR-104 (67) that displayed excellent oral bioavailability of the parent in animals, combined

Reasons For Identifying Striatal Cholinergic Cell Loss As The Origin Of The Four Syndromes

The concept of supersensitivity psychosis is based mainly on longitudinal clinical studies. These case studies differ from typical psychosis, where relapse on drug withdrawal is not automatic, but occurs probabilistically within a year or two (Davis et al., 1989). In such cases, psychotic breakdown is often related to adverse life events in predisposed persons (J0rgensen, 1985 van Os et al., 1994 Bebbington et al., 1996). In the case of supersensitivity psychosis, this typical pattern changes gradually over months and years of treatment, first to an increase of dose requirements, or withdrawal-emergent but transient psychosis, then to withdrawal-emergent psychosis reversed only by reinstating medication, and eventually to psychosis which is resistant to treatment with most antipsychotic drugs (Chouinard and Jones, 1980 Chouinard, 1990). Such atypical psychoses appear not to be related to adverse life events. It may be questioned whether such psychosis is truly neuroleptic-induced, the...

Fears Due to Inadequate Understanding

Unrealistic fears of the diagnosis and treatment are also a problem for many, and those who do not understand that ADHD is a complicated and significantly impairing problem are not likely to learn enough about the disorder to alleviate those fears. For example, many parents worry that if they provide stimulant treatment for their son or daughter with ADHD, the child might have an increased risk of drug addiction later in life. Ironically, by not seeking information about ADHD treatment, they are not likely to find out that a child who has ADHD, if untreated or inadequately treated, has double the risk of suffering, at some point in life, from substance abuse severe enough to warrant diagnosis. Indeed, five scientific studies involving almost a thousand children with ADHD have demonstrated that children whose ADHD is consistently treated with appropriate medications during childhood and adolescence have their elevated risk of substance abuse reduced, essentially to that of a child...

Brain Stem and the Role of Serotonin in Brain Development and Clinical Features of Autism

Because 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT serotonin) serves as both a neurotransmitter and an important developmental signal in the brain, dysregulation of the 5-HT system during development may be responsible for many of the abnormalities seen in autism (Whitaker-Azmitia, 2005). In fact, all known chemical inducers of autism including cocaine, thalidomide, valproate, and alcohol modulate 5-HT levels in the brain (Harris et al., 1995 Kramer et al., 1994 Narita et al., 2002 Rathbun and Druse, 1985 Stromland et al., 1994 Williams et al., 2001). A high proportion of children with autism exhibit elevated blood 5-HT levels (hyperserotonemia) and specific alterations in 5-HT biosynthesis. The severity of hyperserotonemia is correlated with the severity of autistic behaviors (Chandana et al., 2005 Chugani et al., 1999 Kuperman et al., 1987). A causal role for serotonergic abnormalities in the etiology of autism is also suggested by studies indicating autism-specific genetic polymorphisms in 5-HT...

Pharmacophorebased Virtual Screens

Structure-Activity Based Pharmacophore Identification - Transporters represent an important class of targets for a variety of therapeutic indications such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and substance abuse. Specifically, the dopamine transporter (DAT) has been implicated in cocaine addition, and the search for novel inhibitors has benefited from pharmacophore queries based on known antagonists (14-17). From extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on cocaine and related analogs, a pharmacophore was constructed, which consists of sp3 nitrogen required to be part of a ring, an aromatic ring, and a carbonyl group (14). A 3D search of the NCI database (18) of 206,876 compounds using the Chem-X program (19) found 4096 hits. Elimination of compounds with molecular weight > 1000, inappropriate ring N, and structural analogs resulted in the selection of 70 compounds for testing. Of these, 44 (63 ) showed good activity in the primary binding assay. Further...

Ramelteon Insomnia [7378

Evaluation in patients with transient insomnia also supported that 8 mg of ramelteon was sufficient in reducing sleep latency relative to placebo. Since many of the traditional treatments of insomnia have safety concerns, an abuse potential study was conducted in 14 patients with a history of sedative hypnotic drug abuse. Even at doses up to 20 times the recommended therapeutic dose, there were no differences in the subjective responses of ramelteon-treated patients and placebo-treated patients in multiple tests of abuse potential. Based on the result of the clinical trials, the recommended dose of ramelteon is 8 mg taken within 30 min of going to bed. In addition to the precaution of co-administration with CYP inhibitors, it should not be used in patients with severe hepatic impairment. The adverse events, observed in 5 of patients in clinical studies, were somnolence, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, headache, and insomnia.

Effects of Maternal Medication

During pregnancy, the average fetus is exposed to four physician-prescribed and five self-prescribed drugs. Every drug administered or taken by a pregnant woman presents the mother with both risks and benefits. The risks include the drug's potential as a teratogen or as a cause of toxicity in the fetus. Most human teratogens affect the embryo during a very narrow period of early development as illustrated by the time (24 to 33 days gestation) during which the fetus is susceptible to limb reduction defects caused by thalidomide. Several human teratogens, such as alcohol, androgens, cocaine, diphenylhydantoin, radiation, tetracycline, valproic acid, and warfarin have serious side effects beyond the period of organogenesis. These effects may include cell deletion, vascular disruption, necrosis, physiologic decompensation, organ pathology, and intrauterine growth retardation. Drugs taken in the third trimester may not have teratogenic effects, but may be toxic to the fetus. Some examples...

Alkaloids For Defense And Exploitation

Manduca sexta emphasizes that alkaloidal defense against herbivores is not absolute. Plant armies are no different than human armies-no defense is perfect A number of unrelated insect herbivores specialize on plants fortified with toxic alkaloids (e.g., cocaine, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, quinolizidine alkaloids), and often these alkaloidal plants are fed upon exclusively by these specialists. However, while some insects have broken through the alkaloidal defenses of selected plant species, plant alkaloids in general are very active in deterring a wide range of potential enemies.24 Alkaloids clearly emerge as a demonstrated sine qua non for protecting plants from hungry herbivores.

Womens Need For A Healthy Environment When Pregnant

Even more salient for today's lifestyles are the toxic substances that fetuses are exposed to by the mother. Despite all the warnings about alcohol, street drugs such as cocaine and heroin, and prescription drugs, pregnant women who ingest them are exposing their fetuses to possible harm. Kubasek (1999) suggested that government estimates show 11 of pregnant women use illegal drugs during their pregnancies with the average cost per drug-exposed infant being around 1 million. These estimates usually do not include infants exposed to prescription medicines that later turn out to have negative impact on the developing fetus. In an attempt to prevent pregnant women from intentionally using drugs known to be teratogens, most prescription medications are labeled if they are known to have produced damaging effects in animal or human research. Prescribers are trained in knowing these drugs and what these labels mean so that they do not intentionally prescribe them to women who are known to be...

Leptin and Bone Metabolism

Mice Leptin Level

Central and peripheral leptin control of bone metabolism. OPG osteoprotegerin RANK receptor activator of NF-reB RANKL receptor activator of NF-reB ligand VMN ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus ARC arcuate nucleus NPY neuropeptide Y POMC pro-opiomelanocortin CART cocaine amphetamine-regulated transcript SNS sympathetic nervous system. Peripherically circulating leptin secreted by fat tissue or locally produced by osteoblasts and or bone marrow adipocytes, inhibits osteoclast precursors Fig. 3. Central and peripheral leptin control of bone metabolism. OPG osteoprotegerin RANK receptor activator of NF-reB RANKL receptor activator of NF-reB ligand VMN ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus ARC arcuate nucleus NPY neuropeptide Y POMC pro-opiomelanocortin CART cocaine amphetamine-regulated transcript SNS sympathetic nervous system. Peripherically circulating leptin secreted by fat tissue or locally produced by osteoblasts and or bone marrow adipocytes, inhibits osteoclast precursors

What factors may influence MAC

The highest MACs are found in infants at 6 to 12 months of age and decrease with both increasing age and prematurity. For every Celsius degree drop in body temperature, MAC decreases approximately 2 to 5 . Hyponatremia, opioids, barbiturates, a2-blockers, calcium channel blockers, acute alcohol intoxication, and pregnancy decrease MAC. Hyperthermia, chronic alcoholism, and central nervous system (CNS) stimulants (cocaine) increase MAC. Factors that do not affect MAC include hypocarbia, hypercarbia, gender, thyroid function, and hyperkalemia. MAC is additive. For example, nitrous oxide potentiates the effects of volatile anesthetics.

Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons

Glutamate plays an important role in stimulating catecholamine release at the somatic level. Disturbances at the level of the dopamine cell body may occur at a very early stage of development, giving rise to subsequent impaired dopamine neuron function in terminal areas such as the nucleus accumbens. The development of ADHD symptoms could be analogous to the process of drug addiction. Children who have been exposed prenatally to drugs of abuse exhibit ADHD-like behavior (66). Exposure to drugs of abuse increases the extracellular dopamine concentration, which activates D1- and D2-like receptors in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain, which in turn increases glutamate-driven activity in dopamine-containing neurons (67). The mechanism is suggested to involve increased AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory transmission in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons (67,68). Increased activation by glutamate initially causes sensitization of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons with...

Rhinitis Induced by Drugs or Hormones Rhinitis Medicamentosa

Congestion can lead to an erythematous, congested nasal mucosa termed rhinitis medicamentosa. Regular intranasal cocaine use will have the same effect and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Other systemic medications or hormone changes may also be associated with nasal symptoms, although the nasal mucosa may not always appear the same with each medication.

Evolution And Function Of Secondary Metabolites

Several SM have been used by mankind for thousands of years22,27 as dyes (e.g., indigo, shikonine), flavors (e.g., vanillin, capsaicin, mustard oils), fragrances (e.g., rose oil, lavender oil and other essential oils), stimulants (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, ephedrine), hallucinogens (e.g., morphine, cocaine, mescaline, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, tetrahydrocannabinol), insecticides (e.g., nicotine, piperine, pyrethrin), vertebrate and human poisons (e.g., coniine, strychnine, aconitine) and even therapeutic agents (e.g., atropine, quinine, cardenolides, codeine, etc.).


It is believed that activation of certain nicotinic receptor subtypes significantly contributes to the reinforcing effects of nicotine, cocaine and amphetamine through stimulated release of neurotransmitters 48-50 . Both antagonists and agonists at the a4 b2 subtype have been proposed as therapeutic agents for smoking cessation and drug addiction 51-53 , and antagonists at the a3p4 subtype appear to have anti-addictive properties 54,55 . Interestingly, the antidepressant smoking cessation aid bupropion is not only a dopamine noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, but also a noncompetitive antagonist at several nAChR subtypes. It has been proposed that this antagonism contributes to its clinical efficacy 33 .

The Editors

Watson attended the University of Idaho but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah with a degree in chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree inl971 in biochemistry at Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling in nutrition and microbiology was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health and included a 2-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. He was an assistant professor of immunology and did research at the University ofMississippi Medical Center in Jackson from 1973 to 1974. He was an assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at the Indiana University Medical School from 1974 to 1978 and an associate professor at Purdue University in the Department ofFood and Nutrition from 1978 to 1982. In 1982, Dr. Watsonjoined the faculty at the University of Arizona in the Department ofFamily and Community Medicine. He is also a research professor in the University of Arizona's newly formed College ofPublic Health. He is a member...

Other 5ht Receptors

Of these agents to prevent chemotherapy induced emesis is well documented (70-72). Further possible therapeutic indications include the treatment of anxiety, psychoses, anorexia, as well as cognitive disorders and drug abuse. Several recent accounts of compounds with selectivities over a limited set of receptors have been reported. The new structural class represented by 20 has afforded analogs with excellent potency (5-HT3 Ki 10-20 nM) and demonstrated selectivity (> 100-fold) over 5-HT4 and dopamine D2 receptors (73). A second series of related compounds is exemplified by 21 and possesses a comparable profile (74). The related benzimidazole derivative 22 shows a structural similarity to a selective 5-HT4 antagonist described below, but with marked 5-HT3 selectivity (75). In this series, multiple derivatives showed nanomolar potencies with > 100-fold selectivity over 5-HT4 and 5-HT1A.


Research on the role of CRF in stress-related disorders has continued at a vigorous pace over the past several years 1-10 . While much basic research supports the potential of CRF receptor antagonists for treatment of these disorders, clinical results testing this concept have been slow to emerge and are mixed in outcome. Studies such as the open-label trial with R121919 NBI-30775 suggest positive results, while the more recent trials with CP-316,311 and GW-876008 showed a lack of efficacy for depression and anxiety end points, respectively. With a number of trials ongoing for treatment of anxiety, depression, and IBS, the potential utility of these agents is expected to become clearer over the next few years, particularly as the newer compounds may have different in vivo profiles (e.g., pharmacokinetics and potency) than the compounds tested to date. Possible expansion of the utility of CRF-R1 antagonists into the areas of drug addiction and feeding disorders should further enhance...

Dopamine transporter

The majority of dopamine transporter (DAT) PET radiotracers belong to the tro-pane family, and nC cocaine was among the first DAT radioligands developed 86,87 . The relatively low affinity of cocaine for the DAT and its rapid metabolism led to the development of a variety of cocaine analogs. radiolabeled with iodine-123 ( 123I p-CIT) was one of the first cocaine analogs used as a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) DAT radioligand, even though the compound demonstrated little selectivity for DAT (Ki 1.4 nM) compared to SERT (Ki 2.4 nM) 88,89 . In addition, 123I p-CIT demonstrated slow brain pharmacokinetics, so that delayed images (24 h post-injection) were required to obtain estimates of DAT concentrations in the striatum 90 . While p-CIT can be radiolabeled with carbon-11, it is not a useful PET radioligand as a result of its slow kinetics 91,92 . N-fluoroethyl and N-fluoropropyl derivatives of p-CIT demonstrated more rapid pharmacokinetics than the parent p-CIT, and...

Addictive Gambling

Compulsive gambling is an addiction, like alcohol dependence or other drug addiction. Because no physical substance is ingested, gambling has been called the purest form of addiction. Although it is strictly psychological, the uncontrollable impulse to gamble can become overwhelming and eventually cause major disruption in a person's life including loss of job, financial ruin, a broken home, criminal activity, and loss of self-respect and the respect of others. Many people have the potential to become addicted to gambling.

Emotions and health

Emotion always serves the function of giving information. It can be extreme, unusual, debilitating, painful, and so on, but information is always being provided. Emotional reactions are always simply emotional reactions they can never be abnormal. However, traditionally, emotions have been seen as contributing to the neuroses, the psychoses, to the affective disorders (such as bipolar disorder), to psychopathy and to excessive (or minimal) eating, alcoholism and drug abuse. But even in psychiatric conditions, emotions are perfectly normal with respect to what brings them about. They are just what they are, with no values attached to them. However, it is reasonable to say that emotions can be dysfunctional or dysregulational.

Kainate Receptors

Thermoregulation, hallucinations and sexual behavior (Werry et al. 2008). The multiple actions of 5HT are mediated by specific interaction with multiple receptor subtypes. Pharmacologic, physiologic and molecular cloning studies have provided evidence for 15 distinct 5HT receptor subtypes which have been subdivided into seven families (5HT1-5HT7) based on relative ligand-binding affinities, genomic structure, amino acid sequence similarities and coupling to specific signal transduction pathways (Barnes and Sharp 1999 Bockaert et al. 2006 Hoyer et al. 1994, 2002). The 5HT2 family of receptors includes three receptor subtypes 5HT2A, 5HT2B and 5HT2C, which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The G-protein-5HT2C receptor interactions occur in highly-conserved regions of the second- and third-intracellular loops to potentiate subsequent signal transduction pathways via Gaq 11, Ga12 13 and Ga to modulate effector molecules such as phospholipases C, D and A2, as well...


She went to her own physician but didn't tell the doctor about her cocaine use. Rather, she simply said she was depressed and couldn't possibly take care of another child. No questions were asked and the procedure was performed without any problems in the doctor's office, 2 weeks after Joann missed her last period and the pregnancy test that she purchased from her local pharmacy showed positive. Perhaps she might have had a spontaneous abortion if the fetus had been damaged by the cocaine, but perhaps not. Joann was financially able to make her own decision and had access to the resources where she lived.

Toxic Medicines

These decisions are not easy ones for women or doctors to make. The possible risk to the woman for not taking the medication is that her depression, anxiety, psychotic, or manic behavior may worsen and the dysregulation in her production of neurotransmitters will also affect the fetal development. The woman's relationship with her partner and other family and friends in her support system may worsen. She may develop an impaired mother-infant attachment or serious postpartum depression should she keep the pregnancy and give birth. And, she may become actively suicidal. On the other hand, if she continues using psychopharma-cological agents, especially high doses on a regular basis during the pregnancy, there may be risks to the development of the fetus. Medications used during organogenesis (weeks two to eight of fetal development) may be particularly teratogenic, causing major or minor congenital abnormalities in physical or functional areas. In the last trimester, there can be all...

Brain Da Systems

Other psychostimulants, such as amphetamine and cocaine, when injected into the nucleus accumbens, are rewarding as they induce self-administration and place preference behavior by interaction with presynaptic ML DA terminals (23-26). In addition, opiates are also self-rewarding into the VTA by acting on and A receptors, probably through disinhibition of GABAergic interneurons (27-31).

Da Receptors

DA D2Rs represent the major target of antipsychotic drugs and are involved in various neu-ropathological conditions, including PD, Tourette's syndrome, and drug addiction (87,102,103). D4R KO mice (81,126) show reduced behavioral responses to novelty (126). This is consistent with the hypothesis that a lack of D4R function may lead to decreased novelty-seeking in humans (121,122). D4 KO mice show also increased locomotor response to ethanol, cocaine, and methamphetamine (128). These mice also have increased DA synthesis and its conversion to DOPAC in the CPu (128). An association between polymorphisms of the D4R gene and personality profile of the novelty-seeking trait (121,122) is in agreement with D4R role in modulating behavioral responses to novelty. Moreover, behavioral disorders, such as drug abuse (133,134), pathological gambling (135), and ADHD (136,137), have recently been correlated to the same D4R alleles that are associated with novelty-seeking.

Alkaloid Parsimony

Cinchonine, ergotamine, harmaline, strychnine, berberine, colchicine, morphine, cocaine, caffeine, coniine, and nicotine, have been demonstrated to possess allelopathic activity, but many of the compounds possess additional ecological roles. In essence, these usually bitter and toxic alkaloids are also herbivore deterrents, and in many cases they possess antibacterial and antifungal activities.3 These examples of alkaloid parsimony are illustrative of the mutifunctionality of these compounds and serve to focus on the great adaptiveness of these nitrogen heterocycles.


Although less commonly abused than the above drugs, amphetamines acutely cause similar effects to cocaine, including hypertension, arrhythmias, agitation, fever and confusion. Fetal effects include growth retardation, premature labour and abruption. Acute ingestion may increase the requirement for anaesthetic drugs, whereas chronic abuse may result in central depression and depletion of catecholamine stores. Both regional and general anaesthesia may be accompanied by severe hypotension in chronically abusing patients.


Alcohol, the most consumed drug in the world, is often not recognized as a drug or addictive by the public and the media, because of its legal use and acceptance. The public, on the other hand, recognizes cocaine as an addictive drug with traumatic effects on its users. Some users of cocaine begin to mix cocaine with alcohol as together they extend the euphoric sensation. Cocaine plus concomitant ethanol use results in cocaethylene, a compound synthesized in vivo and only identified in 1979 2 , It also has been named in the literature as ethylcocaine, ethylbenzoylecgonine, and benzoylecgonine ethyl ester 2 , Therefore, we will review effects of combined alcohol plus cocaine use as well as cocaethylene in use by 4.5 of 18-25 year olds in the USA in 1988 model studies. In 1990, an NIAAA Survey reported that 5.3 million Americans had used cocaine concurrently (during the same period of time) with alcohol, and 4.6 million simultaneously (on the same occasion) with alcohol 10 , It is...

Wound Botulism

Wound botulism has been associated with major soil contamination through compound fractures, severe trauma, lacerations, puncture wound, and hematoma. Of the pediatric cases in the U.S.A. more than half have been associated with compound fracture (10,21,28). Wound botulism was rare in the U.S.A. until the early 1990s. Since that time the incidence increased mostly in the western U.S.A. among deep tissue injectors (skin popping) of black tar heroin (29-32). Minor skin abscesses and paranasal sinusitis (in a heavy user of intranasal cocaine) were the speculated or proved sources of infection and toxin production. Spores may be a contaminant of the drug or from skin (in infection-related cases). The disease has occurred primarily in young males between March and November, the period of maximum outdoor activity. Most cases have been associated with type A toxin-producing organism, although some cases have been associated with type B.


The rat model continues to be one of the primary models of choice for the study of the cardiovascular effects of cocaine. Recently, the rat model has been utilized to study the acute and chronic effects of cocaine self-administration behavior on cardiovascular function 81 . When rats were self-administered injections of cocaine 0.5 mg kg there was a significant increase in blood pressure. Tolerance developed to this effect within 3 daily sessions. During saline-substitution sessions, a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in blood pressure and heart rate was observed. When the injected doses of cocaine were increased (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg kg per injection)a dramatic increase in blood pressure or heart rate was not produced despite a substantial cumulative cocaine intake(20-27 mg kg). It has thus been hypothesized that operant-conditioned behavior and or the direct reinforcing effects of cocaine modulate the cardiovascular effects of cocaine. The results of thejust described study are in...

Preclinical studies

There have been several studies that underscore the importance of unbound concentration in cell-based studies of receptor function. In a model study of the effect of plasma protein binding on the renal transport of organic anions using the expression of various organic anion transporters (OATPs) in Xenopus oocytes, the transport of ochratoxin A, methotrexate, and estrone sulfate was found to be strongly inhibited by the addition of human serum albumin to the culture medium 16 . Similarly, the addition of a acid glycoprotein was found to reverse the blockade of sodium-ion current by cocaine in a preparation of cardiac myocytes 17 .


And in combination with data from in vitro inhibition of the CYP isozymes, lisdexamfetamine should possess a low potential for drug-drug interactions. Approximately 96 of the radioactivity was recovered in the urine with only 0.3 found in the feces. Regarding the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine, a doubleblind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 290 children aged 6-12 years who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. Over the course of 4 weeks, patients were randomized to a fixed dose of lisdexamfetamine (30, 50, or 70 mg) or placebo once daily in the morning. Employing the ADHD rating scale, significant improvements in patient behavior were observed at endpoint for all doses compared to placebo. While the mean effects were similar for all doses, the 70-mg dose was superior to the lower two doses. Furthermore, as assessed by the Connor's Parent rating scale, the effects were maintained throughout the day with culmination at the 6 p.m. evaluation. The most common adverse events,...


Fissure Surgery Stitches Pictures

Excessive reading, PC work, watching TV, working under neon-light illumination, and hereditary factors play a role in this process. The eyelids can reveal changes associated with disorders of the kidneys, heart, and thyroid gland, or which become apparent from alcohol or drug abuse. The swollen eyes of someone with a psychosomatic disorder may reflect un-cried tears, originating from unexpressed emotions. An eyelid lift will therefore convey the impression of an altogether much fresher person.


The term addiction is used in two ways. More formally, it tends to be restricted to dependence on drugs, including psychoactive drugs such as heroin or cocaine, and also drugs such as alcohol and nicotine. These are drugs on which the body becomes dependent, in which a clear physiological mechanism is involved. However, at a psychological level, it is also possible to become addicted to almost anything. Certainly, the craving that some people have to gamble or to amass money, that others have to exercise, that some have to follow their sexual predilections and that others have to collect stamps look very much like addicted behaviour.


Second, definitions of what constitutes dual diagnosis are far from uniform. Studies of dual diagnosis often employ differing definitions of substance use disorders, making prevalence rates diverse and difficult to compare. For example, definitions of substance abuse vary, ranging from problem use of a substance, to abuse or dependence based on DSM criteria. This is a particularly important issue in terms of diagnostic criteria for both mental and substance use disorders. The publication of DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and the changes in that system from its predecessor may affect dual diagnosis prevalence rates in both community and clinical samples. These changes include a greater focus on determining that a mental disorder is independent from a substance use disorder by determining that the mental disorder either predated the substance use disorder or persists for at least four weeks following cessation of alcohol or drug use. Others do not specify the exact...


Control, schizophrenia and antiepileptic activity. In vitro, BF-2649 potently inhibited the recombinant human H3R (pA2 9.5) 55 . Based on binding Ki values, BF-2649 was 230-fold selective over the human H receptor and greater than 200-fold selective over other targets. BF-2649 was active at 15 mg kg i.p. in a novel object recognition task and in several mouse models of schizophrenia 55 . At 5mg kg i.p., it reduced both methamphetamine and MK-801-induced motor hyperactivity, while at 3 mg kg i.p. the compound reversed apomorphine-induced disruption of PPI. Known antipsychotic agents as well as H3 antagonists are active in these models, suggesting a role for H3 receptor antagonists in schizophrenia 56,57 . Additional efficacy for BF-2649 was noted in a patent application 58 , including an antiepilepsy trial in 12 patients, a satiety effect in six volunteers when given olanzapine, and in a 36 patient wake vigilance assessment. BF-2649 (10 mg kg p.o.) increased wake time in both cats and...

An Addict's Guide To Freedom

An Addict's Guide To Freedom

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