Confocal endomicroscopy uses stimulated light emission and relies on the application of fluorescent agents. Fluo-rescein, acriflavine, t etracycline and, to a lesser extent, cresyl violet are compatible with currently available laser light and filtering options and have been studied in animals and human subjects. In most studies, intravenous fluorescein sodium or topical acriflavine hydrochloride were evaluated (O Fig. 4.7).
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