Traditional or Regulatory Approved US Food and Drug Administration Food Antimicrobials3 Title 21 of the Code of Federal

Acetic acid, acetates, diacetates, dehydroacetic acid Dimethyl dicarbonate Lactic acid, lactates Parabens (alkyl esters (propyl, methyl, heptyl) of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) Clostridium botulinum, other bacteria Clostridium botulinum, other bacteria Yeasts, molds, bacteria (Gram positive) Baked goods, condiments, confections, dairy products, fats oils, meats, sauces Beverages, fruit products, margarine Cheese, casings for frankfurters, cooked meat, and poultry products Cheese, casings for...

Considerations In The Use Of Food Antimicrobials

An antimicrobial is never a substitute for good sanitation in a food processing plant, and low microbial loads must always be sought. Few, if any, regulatory-approved antimicrobials are able to preserve a product that is grossly contaminated. In addition, although food antimicrobials will extend the lag phase or inactivate low numbers of microorganisms, their effects can be overcome. If the number of microorganisms contaminating a food product is high, significantly higher quantities of an...

Definition And Function Of Chemical Food Preservatives

Since prehistoric times, chemicals have been added to preserve freshly harvested foods for later use. Drying, cooling, fermenting, and heating have always been the primary methods used to prolong the shelf life of food products. Whereas some chemical food preservatives, such as salt, nitrites, and sulfites, have been in use for many years, most others have seen extensive use only recently. One of the reasons for increased use of chemical preservatives has been the change in the ways foods are...

References

C., and Games, D. E. 1994. Supercritical fluid extraction of carboxylic and fatty acids from Agaricus spp. mushrooms. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42 718. Adams, D. and Ribbons, D. W. 1988. The metabolism of aromatic compounds by thermophilic bacilli. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 17 231. Akira, K., Farrant, R. D., Lindon, J. C., Caddick, S. T., Nicholls, A. W., and Nicholson, J.K. 1994. High-field deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic monitoring of the...

Mechanisms Of Action

Sorbate concentrations used in foods (< 0.3 ) usually inhibit microorganisms, whereas higher amounts may result in death. Consequently, when the sorbate hurdle is reduced or removed, the surviving microorganisms may resume growth and spoil the food. Sorbate inhibits cell growth and multiplication as well as germination and outgrowth of spore-forming bacteria, but the exact mechanisms of antimicrobial activity are not well defined (Freese et al., 1973 Freese and Levin, 1978 Sofos et al., 1986...

Antimicrobial Activity

Sorbic acid is active against yeasts and molds, as well as against many bacteria (Sofos, 2000). Extensive research during the 1950s demonstrated the impressive effectiveness of sorbates against yeasts and molds and resulted in the extensive use of the compounds as fungistatic agents in many foods. Effective antimicrobial concentrations of sorbates in most foods are in the range of 0.02 to 0.30 . The inhibitory action of sorbate against yeasts was first documented in the 1950s in fermented...

Detection And Analysis

Analytic methods used or tested for qualitative and quantitative detection of sorbates in foods include acidimetry, bromometry, colorimetry, enzymatic, spectrophotometry, polarography, and chromatography. The most widely used methods, however, have been colorimetric (Schmidt, 1960, 1962) and spectrophotometric (Melnick and Luckman, 1954a), although chromatographic methods have gained acceptance in recent years. Detection methods require quantitative extraction and separation of sorbic acid from...