101 Toxic Food Ingredients
Bacteriocins can be used as food additives. For instance, nisin is commercially made in a partially purified form 5, 18 and a marketed preparation with the pedio-cin PA-1 (AcH) producer is available 40 . As an alternative to the addition of bacteriocins to foods, bacteriocins may be produced directly in the food as a result of starter culture or co-culture activity 2 . Several studies have indeed indicated that LAB starter cultures or co-cultures are able to produce their bacteriocins in food matrices, and consequently display inhibitory activity towards sensitive food spoilage or pathogenic bacteria. The latter trait has mainly been documented for fermented sausage, fermented vegetables and olives, and dairy products 2, 13 . For instance, bacteriocin extraction has been demonstrated in the case of Cheddar cheese 41 and fermented
Food additives may be classified by one of six primary functions they serve preservation, improvement in nutritional value, addition or replacement of color, addition or replacement of flavor, improvement in texture, or processing aids (Branen and Haggerty, 2002). The focus of this book is food additives that contribute to preservation, although some food antimicrobials also contribute to color stability (sulfites, nitrites) or flavor (nitrites and certain organic acids). Readers are referred to Food Additives for a more complete treatise of all additives (Branen et al., 2002). Despite the recognized requirement for food additives, their toxicologic safety continues to be evaluated and is often questioned. Few new additives have been approved by regulatory agencies in recent years, and it is doubtful that many additional ones will be approved in the future. Although there is no question that the risk from an additive must be minimal, it is apparent that such risk must be balanced...
The interaction between food additives and nutrient components within the food matrix is an area of future interest. A majority of antioxidants present or added to foods (e.g. propyl gallate, flavonoids, a-tocopherol, carnosic acid, carnosol, catechins, vitamin C) are capable of stimulating free-radical damage to nonlipid components, carbohydrates and DNA in foods.260 Perhaps the safest approach is to avoid the use of both synthetic and natural antioxidants by using appropriate packaging and storage methods, or by avoiding the use of ingredients that are readily oxidised, as summarised in Table 3.5.255 However, the benefits of using antioxidants outweigh the risk. Without antioxidants in foods, oxidation products are formed, and these cause a greater risk to health than the possible hazardous effects of antioxidants.
During the last 10 years, several articles concerning various aspects of food additives and preservatives (e.g., benzoic acid) have been published. General evaluations of the use of these compounds in foods (Vogel, 1992), in prevention of microbial spoilage (Giese, 1994), in meat products (Gerhardt, 1995), in beverage manufacture (Giese, 1995), and in consumer attitudes toward the use of preservatives (Jager, 1994) serve as examples.
Allergic reactions have been reported to occur to the preservative sulfites (and SO2), sodium benzoate, butylated hydroxyzole (BHA), butylated hydroxytylene (BHT), the sugar substitute aspartame, artificial colors (especially yellow, red, and blue), and the flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate (MSG). The symptoms of principal concern are urticaria and asthma. In most cases, even if it is proven that the food additive is involved in the clinical symptoms, the exact mechanism of the reaction is unknown. In general, proven adverse reactions to food preservatives, colors or flavor enhancers are uncommon.
Blood cholesterol levels than saturated fats.13 Specific fatty acids within each major class, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated, often have unique effects on blood cholesterol levels and should be considered on an individual basis. Palmitic acid, a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, is a major contributor of saturated fat intake in the United States diet, accounting for greater than 60 of the saturated fat intake. It is associated with an elevation in LDL levels27 and may cause these elevated levels by inhibiting the expression of LDL receptors on cell surfaces.28 Its effect is very specific for LDL and does not increase HDL or VLDL levels. Meats, coconut oil, palm oil, and dairy fats are the primary sources of palmitic acid. Myristic acid, a 14-carbon saturated fatty acid, occurs in much lower amounts in the diet than palmitic, but has similar effects on LDL levels as palmitic acid.29 Its primary sources are butter fat and tropical oils. Lauric acid, the shortest of the...
Legislation concerning food contamination occasionally needs careful crafting to have an impact. In Denmark, the public was thought to be sensitive to contamination of meat by Campylobacter. However, legislation to stop contaminated chicken from reaching market initially had little effect on purchasing habits. Campylobacter-free chicken was not a big seller. To solve this problem, legislation was coupled with freshness. (Chicken could not be sold as fresh unless it was free of Campylobacter.)
In Gambia, season of birth has been associated with altered morbidity and mortality (frequently infection-related) in adulthood.44 Aflatoxins are prevalent in the population's food supply, but seasonal variations occur in the level of food contamination and exposure to aflatoxin. These interactions were further studied by
In 1998, the Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) estimated that implementing a 10- g kg standard (total aflatoxin) would lead to a risk of 39 cancer deaths per year per billion people, with an uncertainty range between 7 and 164 people. This estimate assumed a European population with 1 carriers of hepatitis B and an aflatoxin carcinogenic potency equal to 0.3 death per year per 100,000 carriers of HBV and 0.01 cancer death per year per 100,000 population among noncarriers.
The literature contains numerous reports of chromatographic methods used or evaluated for determination of sorbate in food products (Sofos, 1989). They include gas chromatography, highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin-layer chromatography, paper chromatography, and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) and ion chromatography. A gas chromatographic method is a first action procedure (AOAC Int. method 983.16) for sorbic and benzoic acids in foods (AOAC Int., 2000). Solid extraction has been used as a cleanup procedure for the determination of sorbic acid by liquid chromatography in fruit products (Mandrou et al., 1999). Others, however, have reported that cleanup procedures did not improve determination by liquid chromatography (Benassi and Cecchi, 1998). Microdialysis was used to extract sorbic acid and benzoic acid from food to be separated and detected by HPLC (Mannino and Cosio, 1996). In addition, HPLC was found to be adequate in obtaining accurate...
The allergic toxemia concept originated with patients who attributed their multiple medically unexplained symptoms to their diet. This led (i.e., misled) to the idea that multiple food allergies in a single individual can produce an unlimited number of symptoms and that the specific symptoms and implicated foods are variable and changeable. Other ingested substances, such as food additives and prescribed medications, particularly antibiotics, are often included as causes of allergic toxemia. To explain unpredictable symptom responses, the concepts of masking and overload were devised to rationalize the absence or presence, respectively, of unexpected symptoms. The current terminology for unexplained absence presence of symptoms is adaptation de-adaptation. It is clear that these terms are merely descriptive and have yet to be explained by their advocates in a physiologically meaningful way.
One of the alleged attractions of naturally occurring antimicrobials is their reduced negative impact on the labeling of foods. Consumers are reportedly concerned about the presence of synthetic chemicals in their foods and would prefer natural compounds. A potential problem with natural antimicrobials is that if they are highly purified, they may need to be approved as food additives. This would involve very expensive and time-consuming toxicologic testing. In addition, the compound would probably have to be listed using a chemical name on a food label. This, of course, would defeat the purpose of using a natural compound. For that reason, less purification may be better. If a product is simply an extract of' a commonly consumed plant or animal food product, it is much less likely to require complex regulatory approval for use (Davidson and Zivanovic, 2003). This is only possible if the product from which the extract is taken is known to be nontoxic.
The triggering of headaches by vasoactive amines naturally or by food additives may occur with the foods listed in Table 3 and described under Mechanisms. Although the issue of allergy being involved in migraine headache pathogenesis has been long debated, it is rarely proven. In a few cases of patients with migraine headaches, chemical mediator release while eating a specific food may be involved in the headache. Migraines are very common in the general population (e.g., 25 of all adult women and 15 of all adult men). In addition, allergies are also common therefore, it would be easy to find both conditions (migraine headache and atopic disease) present in the same individual. Adverse reactions to food additives are not nearly as common as is generally believed. Reactions to BHA, BHT, benzonates, and nitrates are very rarely substantiated by objective measurements. The most common FDA-reported food additive reactions are those to aspartame, and the usual type of symptom is headache....
Microorganisms are one of the most abundant and diverse species found on earth. The exploitation of microorganisms to produce food ingredients has been going on since antiquity. However, the isolation of microbial antioxidants did not become a focus of research until the early 1980s, although Forbes et al.168 and Meisinger et al.169 established a relationship between antioxidants and microorganisms. Since this early work, a vast number of compounds and microorganisms have been characterised. The intent of the following discussion is to highlight some of the studies that demonstrate the antioxidant activity of microorganisms.
Alfred Larry Branen is associate vice president for research and outreach and associate director of the Center for Advanced Microelectronic and Biomolecular Research (CAMBR) at the University of Idaho Research Park in Post Falls. Formerly dean of the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Idaho and head of the Department of Food Science and Technology at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Dr. Branen is the author or coauthor of more than 50 professional papers and coeditor, with P. Michael Davidson, John Thorngate, and Seppo Salminen, of Food Additives. A member of the Institute of Food Technologists and the former chair of its Toxicology Division, Dr. Branen received the B.S. degree (1967) in food science from the University of Idaho, Moscow, and the Ph.D. degree (1970) in food science from Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Results of routine monitoring of groundnuts by the Zimbabwe Government Analyst Laboratory were reported at the 49th meeting of the Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).42 Seasonal variations were noted in that 46 of the samples analyzed during the 1995 season and 8 of the samples analyzed in the 1996 season were contaminated with aflatoxins at levels above 10 lg kg. As noted in the introduction, previous studies in rural villages had indicated the presence of AFM1 in human breast milk at levels up to 0.05 ng mL, raising concerns regarding infant exposure.23
First and foremost, in establishing a diagnosis the primary care clinician knows the importance of a complete history and physical examination of the patient. The patient with urticaria or angioedema typically is assigned the correct diagnostic classification following the history and physical examination. This information establishes whether the disease process is acute or chronic. Hives or swelling persisting beyond 6 wk will be assigned to the chronic designation. Questioning will reveal whether those cases with a duration of more than 6 wk represent recurrent episodes of acute urticaria following inadvertent ingestion or exposure to allergens. A history will reveal whether a child has had an acute viral prodrome and or is taking antibiotics for a presumed bacterial infection. Furthermore, a careful history will reveal medications or OTC preparations that can result in urticaria. Review of the patient's dietary history is paramount in determining whether foods in the diet or food...
We have seen a few patients whose useless hand was made useful by employing constraint-induced movement therapy. Some third-party payers have denied coverage for these devices and therapies, which is very unfortunate as any element of functional improvement and independence is important for these patients. Speech therapy and communication devices can optimize communication when dysarthria, apraxia of speech, or aphasia is present. Therapists also counsel patients and families on swallowing maneuvers and food additives to minimize aspiration when dys-phagia occurs. Feeding gastrostomy should be discussed with all patients, although many decide not to undergo this procedure.
Sorbates are widely used food preservatives throughout the world. The most commonly used forms include sorbic acid and the potassium salt. The compounds find application in human foods of all types, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic products, packaging materials, and technical preparations that come in contact with foods or the human body. In the United States, sorbates may be used in any food product that allows generally recognized as safe (GRAS) food additives and in approximately 80 additional food products that have federal standards of identity (Sofos, 1989, 1992).
Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At A Food Business. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Turning Your Love For Cooking Into A Money Maker.