Treating gum disease with homemade remedies

Freedom From Dental Disease

The Primary Care Oral Health Action Pack can Favorably change the way you look at your oral health and what affects it. Increase your knowledge of YOUR teeth and gums, YOUR entire oral environment and yes, your SMILE! Reveal the TRUE CAUSE of cavities, decay of bone and tissue and disclose the proper biological balance. Put YOU in command over this contagious, yet EASILY preventable disease which runs rampant thoughout our population. Allow you to TAKE ACTION to restoring your teeth and gums to optimum health while preventing further decay and damage, as well as preventing any potentially related problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and so on. How to Become Dentally Self Sufficient. Research Advocates OraMedics The science behind the program! The 7 Factors Transcript - Dr. Nara's Last speech before the World Health Federation. More here...

Freedom From Dental Disease Overview

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What You Should Know About Gum Disease

These books encapsulate my personal experience with fighting gum disease, described as follows: My gums bled during dental cleanings. I had pockets depths of 4 and 5mms and one 6mm pocket. My dentist told me I had moderate gum (periodontal) disease. She and / or the hygienist also told me that the ONLY thing that would help me was a Scaling and Root Planing Treatment - Otherwise knowns as a SRP or Deep Cleaning. After applying the information I learned on my own and the tools that I employed the results were that my pocket depths returned to normal. There was no more bleeding during dental cleanings, brushing or flossing. I was told that I no longer needed the Deep Cleaning or SRP treatment and that whatever I was doing, I should keep it up.

What You Should Know About Gum Disease Overview

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Microbiology Gingivitis

The healthy gingival sulcus contains relatively few organisms, usually Streptococci and Actinomyces (Table 1). The development of gingivitis is associated with a significant increase in AGNB (F. nucleatum, P. intermedia and Bacteroides spp.), spirochetes and motile rods.

Management Gingivitis

Treatment of gingivitis involves removing dental plaques and maintaining good oral hygiene. Personal plaque calculus control and professional debridement, oral hygiene care, correction of plaque retentive sites, and if these are unhelpful, chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12 mouthwash or baking soda plus hydrogen peroxide rinses should be used. Antibiotics are generally not recommended for gingivitis. The types of gingivitis that require systemic antimicrobial therapy include streptococcal gingivitis and NUG.

Gingivitis And Periodontitis Pathogenesis and Complications

Periodontal disease is a term referring to all diseases involving the supportive structures of the teeth (periodontium). It most commonly begins as gingivitis and progresses to period-ontitis. How rapidly these infections progress depends on the type of bacteria present and the resistance and self-care of the patient. Although children are more resistant to gingivitis as compared to adults, it is the most common periodontal disease during childhood and peaks in adolescence (32). Purulent gingival pockets or gingival abscesses may complicate periodontal disease. Gingivitis results from accumulation of plaque and bacteria in the gingival crevice. Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gingivae, characterized by swelling, redness, change of normal contours, and bleeding. Swelling deepens the crevice between the gingivae and the teeth, forming gingival pockets. Although the patient usually experiences no pain, a mild foul smell may be noticed (32,34,35). Gingivitis may be acute or may be...

Gingivitis

The most fulminate form of gingivitis is necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) (previously called acute NUG, trench mouth or Vincent's infection). It is a very painful, fetid, ulcerative disease that occurs most often in persons under severe stress with no or very poor oral hygiene. It is manifested by acutely tender, inflamed, bleeding gums associated with the interdental papillae necrosis and loss. Halitosis and fever are often present. Microbiological examinations of the bacterial biofilms found in NUG revealed high numbers of spirochetes and fusobacteria (39-41). Another form of fulminate gingivitis is acute streptococcal gingivitis. It is caused by Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes) and is generally associated with acute streptococcal tonsillitis.

Periodontitis

Periodontitis often develops as a progression of gingivitis to the point that loss of supporting bone has begun because of destruction of alveolar bone. Tooth mobility, bleeding gingivae, and increased spaces between the teeth are common but are not necessarily signs of advanced disease. In some cases purulent exudate is present. Periodontal infection tends to localize to intraoral soft tissue but can spread to adjacent sites. The two main forms of periodontitis are chronic and aggressive periodontitis (Table 2). Chronic periodontitis (replaced adult periodontitis) occurs mostly in adults, but can be also seen in younger individuals. Destruction is consistent with the amount of plaque present TABLE 2 Outline of the 1999 Classification of Periodontal Disease 2. Chronic periodontitis3'11 3. Aggressive periodontitis0 4. Periodontitis associated with systemic diseases (hematological, genetic and other) 5. Necrotizing periodontal diseases (necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis or...

Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is inflammation of the gums and other tissues surrounding the teeth that is caused by a bacterial infection. The disorder affects as many as 75 percent of adults over age 35. It is the main cause of tooth loss in adults. The earliest stage of periodontal disease is called gingivitis. The main symptom of gingivitis is gums that bleed when you brush or floss your teeth. At this stage, gum disease is both preventable and reversible because the plaque buildup has not yet extended below the gum line to the roots. Brushing your teeth daily is not enough to prevent gingivitis. The only way to stop gingivitis and to prevent further inflammation is to brush your teeth consistently twice a day, floss your teeth daily, and have a professional tooth cleaning at least twice a year. You should also maintain a balanced diet and avoid smoking or chewing tobacco. Warning Signs of Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is the...

Matrix Metalloproteinases Inhibitors

Doxycycline inhibits MMP activity at sub-antimicrobial doses 90 and is the only MMP inhibitor widely available clinically, indicated for the treatment of periodontal disease 91 . Prescribed as an antibiotic, doxycycline is also used clinically to manage COPD. In August 2007, a clinical trial for the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin commenced to study its anti-inflammatory properties in people with COPD through the inhibition of the MMP-catalyzed breakdown of collagen 92 . Broad spectrum MMP inhibitors, such as marimastat (BB-2516), have performed poorly in clinical trials. Marimastat was shown to have considerable side effects and dose-limiting musculoskeletal toxicity. The mechanism of this toxicity has not been completely elucidated, though several proposals have been advanced 93 .

Pathogensesis And Pathology

Actinomyces species are agents of low pathogenicity and require disruption of the mucosal barrier to cause disease. Actinomycosis usually occurs in immunocompetent persons but may afflict persons with diminished host defenses. Oral and cervicofacial diseases commonly are associated with dental caries and extractions, gingivitis and gingival trauma, infection in erupting secondary teeth, chronic tonsillitis, otitis or mastoiditis, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, malnutrition, and local tissue damage caused by surgery, neoplastic disease, or irradiation. Pulmonary infections usually arise after aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastrointestinal secretions. Gastrointestinal infection frequently follows loss of mucosal integrity, such as with surgery, appendicitis, diverticulitis, trauma, or foreign bodies (1). The use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) was linked to the development of actinomycosis of the female genital tract. The presence of a foreign body in this setting...

Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors for Treatment of Cancer

Overview of the MMPs Several excellent reviews on the design of MMP inhibitors have appeared (1-16). The MMPs are a family of zinc-containing, calcium-dependent enzymes involved in tissue remodelling and degradation of the ECM proteins, angiogenesis, and cell motility (17-20). Currently, 20 human MMPs are known (Table 1). The MMPs belong to the matrixin family, and they may be subdivided into five classes according to their substrate specificity, primary structures, and their cellular localization. MMP-23 is the most recently discovered MMP to be cloned and characterized (21). The enzymes are expressed as inactive zymogens which are activated by serine proteases, e.g., furin and plasmin, and other MMPs. The zymogens are excreted by a variety of connective tissue and pro-inflammatory cells, including fibroblasts, osteoblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. The MMPs generally consist of four distinct domains an N-terminal pro-domain, a catalytic domain, a...

Agents Exhibiting Il1 Modulation

The tricyclic ylidene-acetic acid 6 is an antiarthritic, antipyretic and analgesic drug which is reported to block the acute phase reaction in animal models (67). jn vitro, 6 blocks the synthesis of prostaglandins from zymosan stimulated murine macrophages and inhibits the release of IL-1 a and IL-1 p from human monocytes and murine macrophages. Compound 6 and a series of its analogs, particularly the 2-chloro derivative, were recently patented as inhibitors of IL-1 release from human monocytes and mouse macrophages claiming clinical improvement in patients with psoriasis, periodontal disease and Alzheimers disease (68). Results from one clinical study of 6 in arthritic patients reported improvement in clinical measures of disease severity (67).

Cytokine Measurements in Disease

Elevated plasma levels of IL-1 have been detected in a wide range of different conditions that are characterized by inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), acute arthritides (D13, E2, M5), Crohns disease (S10), periodontitis (C16), sunburn (G20), burns (K34), endometriosis (F3), psoriasis (C5), gram-positive meningitis (Sll), and extended exercise in healthy volunteers (C9). In RA there is some correlation with disease activity (E2). In synovial fluid, biologically active

Epidemiology Etiologic Agents

In recent years, the epidemiology and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia has changed.2,21 From 1979 through 1994, the ovmll rates of death due to pneumonia and influenza increased by 59 .21'Pneumonia is increasing among older patients and those with underlying diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease and diabetes mellitus. These patients may become infected with various organisms, including newly identified or previously unrecognized pathogens. Factors such as decreased mucodliary function, decreased cough reflex, decreased level of cons-dousness, periodontal disease, and decreased general mobility probably contribute to a greater inddence of pneumonia in older patients. Such patients have been found to be more frequendy colonized with gramnegative bacilli than younger people, perhaps because of

Keeping Your Teeth and Gums Healthy

Having a clean mouth is good for you in many ways. Not only does it give you fresh breath and a nice smile, but it also gives your self-esteem a lift. Thorough daily cleaning of your teeth and gums helps prevent tooth decay and periodontal disease (gum disease). Keeping your teeth and gums healthy also can improve your overall health. Periodontal disease may be a factor in the development of chronic conditions such as heart disease. The best way to ensure oral health is to brush your teeth at least twice a day and to floss them daily. Brushing and flossing remove the thin sticky layer of bacteria that grows daily on your teeth. This layer of bacteria is called plaque, and it is responsible for both tooth decay and periodontal disease. When you eat, the bacteria in plaque produce acids that attack the teeth and irritate the gums, making them inflamed. Over time, the gums may bleed and pull away from the teeth. Bacteria and pus accumulate in the pockets that form in the Flossing your...

Invasion by Porphyromonas gingivalis

Porphyromonas gingivalis cells are Gram-negative, anaerobic, nonmotile short rods that produce black pigmented colonies on blood agar. The taxonomy of the species dates back to 1921 when Oliver and Wherry isolated an organism from a variety of oral and nonoral sites that they were to designate Bacterium melaninogenicum. This heterogeneous grouping was later subdivided into nonfermenters, weak fermenters, and strong fermenters. After a number of status changes within the genus Bacteroides, asaccharolytic oral isolates were assigned to the taxon P. gingivalis. The primary ecological niche of P. gingivalis is in the subgingival crevice, the gap between the surfaces ofthe tooth and the gingiva (gum) however, the organism can be found elsewhere in the mouth, including supragingival (above the gum) tooth surfaces, the tongue, tonsils, and buccal (cheek) mucosa. Although the species has been associated with odontogenic abscesses and nonoral infections (discussed later), the primary...

Clinical Clues to Diagnosis of Anaerobic Infections

Periodontitis or periopical abscess and lung abscess can be a clue to underlying bronchogenic malignancy. Malignant disease can be first detected because of an anaerobic infection. Malignancy or other process in the colon can induce sepsis with Clostridium spp. (especially Clostridium septicum) (29) or arthritis caused by Eubacterium lentum (30) or emerge first as abdominal wall myonecrosis (31). Capnocytophaga which is member of the oral microflora can cause sepsis in patients with leukemia (32).

Epidemiology And Pathogenesis

The vast majority of Campylobacters appear to bej pathogenic and are associated with a wide variety oil diseases in humans and other animals. These organising also demonstrate considerable ecologic diversity. Campy lobacter spp. are microaerobic inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts of various animals, including poultrtl dogs, cats, sheep, and cattle, as well as the reproductive organs of several animal species. When fecal samples from chicken carcasses chosen at random from butchef shops in the New York City area were tested foil Campybbacter, 83 of the samples yielded more than, 106 colony-forming units per gram of feces. In gener Campybbacter spp. produce three syndromes in humans febrile systemic disease, periodontal disease, and, most commonly, gastroenteritis. Arcobacter species appear to be associated with gastroenteritis as well in one recent study. A, butzleri was the fourth most common Campylobader-Vkt organism isolated from stool and was associated with a persistent,...

Therapeutic Potential Of Dppiv Inhibition

Nervosa and periodontal disease, but are decreased in systemic lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, pregnancy, depression, and schizophrenia (91-98). HIV-infected patients have normal serum DPP-IV activity but with a decreased number of DPP-IV-positive lymphocytes (99). DPP-IV has been employed as a cell surface marker in the histological evaluation of a wide range of tumor types. Tumors have been described with either increased or decreased expression of CD26 DPP-IV, and this divergent expression has been associated with both an increased and decreased aggressiveness of growth of the tumors in question. Tumors with high cell-surface DPP-IV activity expression include B chronic lymphocytic leukemia, basal cell carcinoma, T cell lymphoma, thyroid carcinoma, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and lung tumors, while tumors with reduced or absent DPP-IV activity CD26 expression include squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma (88,100108). Presently, it is unclear whether changes in DPP-IV...

Bacteroides fragilis Group

Organisms that are capable of supplying this need Pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas are part of the normal oral and vaginal flora and are the predominant anaerobic gram negative bacilli isolated from respiratory infections. These include aspiration pneumonia (38), lung abscess (61), chronic otitis media (14), and chronic sinusitis (15). These organisms have been recovered also from abscesses and burns around the oral cavity (58), human bites (68), paronychia (69), urinary tract infection (70), brain abscesses (37), and osteomyelitis (71). Also, they have been isolated from patients with bacteremia associated with infections of the upper respiratory tract (11). Pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas play a major role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease (72) and periodontal abscesses (73). Of the pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Porphyromonas asaccharolytica is generally the most frequent clinical isolate. Prevotella intermedia is identified less frequently, and...

DNA Microarray Analysis of Bacterial Pathogens

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anarobe associated with periodontal disease in humans. The genome of a virulent strain of P. gingivalis W50 was recently sequenced (13). A DNA microarray was prepared from PCR amplicons derived from the predicted ORFs of this virulent strain. This microarray was used as a reference to compare the genome of W50 with that of a nonvirulent strain, ATCC33277, with the hope of identifying genes that are required for virulence. Hybridization results showed that 154 ORFs (7 of the total) that are present in W50 are highly divergent or absent in the nonvirulent strain ATCC33277. Interestingly, many of these divergent genes are clustered into three regions of the W50 genome with a lower guanine and cytosine content than the rest of the genome, corresponding to GEIs which are clusters of genes that were likely acquired through horizontal gene transfer. These regions contain putative virulence genes, including genes for capsular polysaccharide...

Intravascular Infections

The primary causes of infective endocarditis are the viridans streptococci, comprising several species (Box 52-2). These organisms are normal inhabitants primarily of the oral cavity, often gaining entrance to the bloodstream as a result of gingivitis, periodontitis, or dental manipulation. Heart valves, especially those that have been previously damaged, present convenient surfaces for attachment of these bacteria. Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans are most frequently isolated in streptococcal endocarditis.

Introduction to Anaerobes

Intra-abdominal and female genital tract infections, sepsis, neonatal infection Orofacial infections, aspiration pneumonia, periodontitis Orofacial infections Eubacterium spp. are part of the flora of the mouth and the bowel. They have been recognized as pathogens in chronic periodontal disease (29) and in infections associated with intra-uterine devices (30), and have been isolated from patients with bacteraemia associated with malignancy (31) and from female genital tract infection (32). Lactobacillus spp. are ubiquitous inhabitants of the human oral cavity, the vagina, and the gastrointestinal tract (33). They have been implicated in various serious deep-seated infections, amnionitis (33) and bacteraemia (34). Eubacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium spp. have been isolated in pure culture in only a few instances and are usually isolated in mixed culture from clinical specimens (1). The infections where they have been found most often are chronic otitis media and sinusitis,...

Symptoms And Signs

The Herpes 2 infection usually affects the genital regions. The primary genital infection may be severe, with illness usually lasting up to about 3 weeks (sometimes longer) with a shedding period of virus usually terminating shortly before or at the time of healing. The lesions are vesicles or ulcers localized to the cervix, vagina, vulva or perineum of the female, or the penis in the male. The lesions are painful, and may be associated with inguinal lymphadenopathy and dysuria. Systemic complaints, including fever and malaise, usually occur. Complicating extragenital affections, including aseptic meningitis, have been observed in about 10-20 of cases. Paraesthesia or dysesthesia may occur after the genital affection. Especially in women the severity of the primary infection may be associated with a high number of complications and frequent recurrences. Previous HSV1 infection reduces the severity and duration of primary HSV2 infection. The recurrent genital affection is usually...

Biofilms and Persisters

According to the CDC, 65 of all infections in developed countries are caused by biofilms, bacterial communities that settle on a surface and are covered by an exopolymer matrix (Hall-Stoodley et al. 2004). These include common diseases such as childhood middle ear infection and gingivitis infections of all known indwelling devices such as catheters, orthopedic prostheses, and heart valves and the incurable disease of cystic fibrosis. Biofilms are produced by most if not all pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, causing an incurable infection in cystic fibrosis patients (Singh et al. 2000), and Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epider-midis, infecting indwelling devices (Mack et al. 2004), are probably the best-known biofilm-producing organisms. Biofilm infections are highly recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. However, planktonic cells derived from these biofilms are in most cases fully susceptible to antibiotics. Importantly, biofilms do not actually grow in the presence of...

Periodontal Infections

Ly important in other dental processes, such as caries (destruction of the mineralized tissues of the tooth a cavity), periodontal (tissues in, around, and supporting the tooth) disease, and localized juvenile periodontitis, but clinical laboratories are not involved In culturing in such cases.

Porphyromonas gingivalis

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and natural component of the oral mucosal microbiome, is the causative agent of periodontal disease (i.e., gingivitis), which can lead to periodontal bone loss (Fiehn et al. 1992). This pathogen has also been involved in cardiovascular disease, pulmonary infections and atherosclerosis. Gingival epithelial cells are among the first host cells colonized by P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis invades and replicates in human endothelial cells, producing an array of potential virulence factors including extracellular proteases. The binding of the bacterial fimbriae to the host cellular b1-integrin receptor is required for invasion (Deshpande et al. 1998 reviewed by Yilmaz 2008) and for activation of endothelial cells, which leads to the development of atherogenesis (Takahashi et al. 2006). Activation of signaling molecules and actin rearrangements are key events upon the interaction of the bacterium with plasma membrane

Aspiration Pneumonia and Lung Abscess

Aspiration of food and vomitus is common in those who are prone to aspirate because of debilitation, dysphagia, alcoholism, nasogastric tube feeding, congenital malformations of the upper airways, central nervous system disorders such as seizures, and altered consciousness. If active or passive clearance of the aspirate is not achieved, there is a short latent period of several hours before the onset of pneumonia. Poor oral hygiene, gingivitis, and periodontitis, as well as therapy with diphenylhydantoin contribute to poor oral hygiene and promote the development of pneumonia in those who aspirate.

Epidemiology spectrum of disease and antimicrobial therapy

The types of infections caused by these bacteria vary from periodontitis to endocarditis (Table 33-2). Three of these organisms, Actinobadllus actinomycetemco-mitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, and Kingella spp., are the A, C, and K, respectively, of the HACEK group of organisms that cause slowly progressive (i.e., subacute) bacterial endocarditis. Kingella spp. can also be involved in other serious infections involving children.3,11

Dental Caries

The first step in the origination of caries is the formation of a dental plaque (2). An increase in the amount of plaque is responsible for the ultimate development of gingivitis. A variety of factors interact in the generation of dental plaque and subsequent emergence of caries. These include the presence of a susceptible tooth surface, the proper microflora, and a suitable nutritional substrate for that flora. Several oral acid producing aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Actinomyces viscosus, are capable of initiating the carious lesion. However, S. mutans is consistently the only organism recovered from decaying dental fissures and is isolated in greater quantities from carious teeth than in non-carious ones (9). The overwhelming majority of microorganisms isolated from carious dentin are obligate anaerobes (10). The predominant organisms are Propionibac-terium, Eubacteria, Arachnia, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, and...

Empyema

Impaired mechanical defenses due to Neurologic injury (i.e., depressed cough reflex, altered consciousness, seizures) Intubation or tracheostomy Debilitation Dysphagia Alcoholism Nasogastric tube Feeding malformations Constant recumbent position Change in oropharyngeal flora Repeated administration of antibiotics Gingivitis due to anticonvulsion therapy Poor oral hygiene, gingivitis, periodontitis Long-term hospitalization and response to hospital flora Impaired immunological defenses in some genetic disorders (i.e., Down's syndrome) Delay in recognition of acute illness because of the patient's inability to complain

Tetracyclines

Concentrations of tetracyclines that are below the antibiotic threshold still have anti-inflammatory activity. Low doses of doxycycline and minocycine that do not affect bacterial growth decrease the production of neutrophil chemo-attractants by P. acnes (25,26). Subminimal inhibitory doses also retain the ability to inhibit inflammation in vivo and improve diseases such as acne, rosacea, and periodontitis (27-29).

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