Therapy And Prophylaxis

Since more than 95 of the IM patients recover without specific therapy, and specific therapy does not show significant clinical benefit, the treatment is usually symptomatic. The duration of fever is reduced to 2 to 5 days using prednisolone (40mg day decreased to 5mg day by the 12th day). However, this treatment has gained no general acceptance because of the fear of inducing myocarditis or meningoencephalitis. Corticosteroids may be used in airway obstruction, severe thrombocytopenia,...

Haemorrhagic Fever Viruses

Haemorrhagic fever viruses are found within several families. They have natural transmission cycles among animals and are therefore geographically restricted to certain areas. Flaviviruses are enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, about 50 nm in diameter. Yellow fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever occur in the tropics and adjacent subtropics and are transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes and Haemagogus). The host reservoirs of yellow fever virus are humans (urban form) and monkeys...

Clinical Syndromes

Common aetiological agents (including common non-viral causes) Arteritis, see Polyarteritis Arthritis arthralgia arthropathy Chronic fatigue syndrome, see Postviral chronic fatigue syndrome Congenital disease (see also Perinatal generalized infection) Conjunctivitis (see also Keratoconjunctivitis) Seen in various virus infections (rubella, rubella vaccination, parvovirus B19, mumps, alphaviruses) and in chlamydial (Reiter's syndrome) and bacterial infections (Haemophilus influenzae,...

Symptoms And Signs

Man is infected following bite of the tick I. ricinus (and I. persulcatus for Eastern TBE). In highly infested areas such exposure will not always be recalled by the patient. The prodromal phase of TBE lasts 2-12 days and has no pathognomic symptoms. At this stage the disease will most commonly be diagnosed as a non-specific fever with headache and myalgia. If an EEG is performed, pathological findings may, however, be detected. The 'major disease' (secondary phase) may follow after a...

Classification And Nomenclature Of Human And Animal Viruses

The present universal system for virus taxonomy includes family, genus and species. Virus families and subfamilies are designated by terms ending in -viridae and -virinae, respectively. Families represent clusters of genera of viruses with apparently common evolutionary origin. Genera are designated by terms ending in -virus. The criteria used for creating genera differ between families. Virus characteristics used for classification vary from simple to complex structure, including nucleic acid...