Clinical Syndromes

G. Haukenes and J. R. Pattison

Clinical syndrome

Common aetiological agents (including common non-viral causes)

Adult T-cell leukaemia AIDS

Arteritis, see Polyarteritis Arthritis/arthralgia/arthropathy

Balanitis

Bronchiolitis

Cervicitis

Chronic fatigue syndrome, see Postviral chronic fatigue syndrome

Condyloma acuminatum

Congenital disease (see also Perinatal generalized infection)

Conjunctivitis (see also Keratoconjunctivitis)

Contagious pustular dermatitis

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

HTLV-l

HIV-1 and HIV-2

Seen in various virus infections (rubella, rubella vaccination, parvovirus B19, mumps, alphaviruses) and in chlamydial (Reiter's syndrome) and bacterial infections (Haemophilus influenzae, campylobacter, gonococci, streptococci group A)

Herpes simplex virus

Respiratory syncytial virus

Parainfluenzaviruses, adenoviruses

Herpes simplex virus (Chlamydia trachomatis)

Human papillomaviruses

Rubella virus Cytomegalovirus

Herpes simplex virus (Toxoplasma gondii and Treponema pallidum)

Adenoviruses

Enterovirus 70 (Chlamydia trachomatis)

Orf virus

Prion

Continued

Croup

Cystitis

Diarrhoea, see Gastroenteritis

Ecthyma contagiosum, see Contagious pustular dermatitis Encephalitis/meningitis

Parainfluenzaviruses Respiratory syncytial virus Influenzaviruses Measles virus

(Note: Haemophilus influenzae epiglottitis) Adenoviruses, BK virus

Epidemic myalgia/pleurodynia Epididymitis

Erythema infectiosum

Exanthema subitum (Roseola infantum)

Facial nerve palsy

Fever—often with a non-specific rash

Herpes simplex virus Enteroviruses Varicella-zoster virus Alphaviruses Flaviviruses Bunyaviruses Rabies virus Mumps virus Measles virus (SSPE)

Encephalitis lethargica—von Economo—seen 1914-1925 (postinfectious: measles, rubella, varicella)

Coxsackie B virus Mumps virus

(Gonococci and Chlamydia trachomatis)

Parvovirus B19

Human herpesviruses 6 and 7

Varicella-zoster virus Herpes simplex virus

(In most cases the aetiology cannot be established)

Enteroviruses (especially echovirus) Adenoviruses Epstein-Barr virus Cytomegalovirus

Gastroenteritis

Rotavirus Adenoviruses Norwalk agent

Gingivostomatitis

Glomerulonephritis

Guillain-Barre syndrome

Haemorrhagic fever

Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, see Nephropathia epidemica

Hand, foot and mouth disease

Hepatitis, acute

Hepatitis, chronic Herpangina

Infectious mononucleosis

Small round viruses Caliciviruses Astrovirus Coronaviruses

(Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, etc.)

Herpes simplex virus Coxsackie A virus (as herpangina) (Anaerobic bacteria)

Hepatitis B virus Cytomegalovirus (Streptococci group A)

Considered to be an immune complex disease secondary to infection, e.g. cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, etc.)

Alphaviruses, arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, filoviruses, flaviviruses

Coxsackie A viruses Other enteroviruses

(Note: Foot and mouth disease in cattle may very rarely be transmitted to man)

Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis D virus Hepatitis E virus Hepatitis G virus

Hepatitis is also seen in yellow fever, CMV and Epstein-Barr virus infections

Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis D virus

Coxsackie A viruses Epstein-Barr virus

Cytomegalovirus (Toxoplasma gondii)

Continued

Influenza

Keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis

Meningitis (see also Encephalitis)

Molluscum contagiosum

Mononucleosis, see Infectious mononucleosis

Myalgia (epidemic), see Epidemic myalgia

Myocarditis

Nephropathia epidemica

Ockelbo disease

Orchitis

Pancreatitis

Pareses

Pericarditis

Perinatal generalized infection (see also Congenital disease)

Pharyngitis, see Tonsillitis and Upper respiratory infection

Influenza A and B viruses

Herpes simplex virus Adenoviruses Enterovirus 70 Varicella-zoster virus

Enteroviruses

Mumps virus

Adenoviruses

Herpes simplex virus

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

Epstein-Barr virus (bacteria, fungi, parasites)

Molluscum contagiosum virus

Coxsackie B viruses Puumala virus

Alphavirus (Sindbis virus-related)

Mumps virus Coxsackie B virus

(Gonococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

Mumps virus Coxsackie B viruses

Polioviruses Other enteroviruses Encephalitis viruses Rabies virus

Coxsackie B viruses

Herpes simplex virus Coxsackie B viruses Varicella-zoster virus

(Streptococci group B, Escherichia coli, Listeria)

Pleurodynia, see Epidemic myalgia

Pneumonia

Polyarteritis nodosa

Postviral chronic fatigue syndrome

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Rhinitis, see Upper respiratory infection

Stomatitis, see Gingivostomatitis

Tonsillitis

Upper respiratory infection

Urethritis

Vaginitis/vulvitis

Warts

Influenzaviruses

Adenoviruses

Respiratory syncytial virus

Parainfluenzaviruses

Enteroviruses

Varicella-zoster virus

Cytomegalovirus

(Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, pneumoniae and psittaci, Coxiella burnetii, Legionella pneumophila, pyogenic bacteria)

Hepatitis B virus (immune complex) Hepatitis C virus

Cause unknown. Some cases have been associated with persistent coxsackie B virus infection and EBV has been implicated in some cases

Polyomavirus

Epstein-Barr virus Adenoviruses

(Streptococci group A, Haemophilus influenzae)

Rhinoviruses

Coronaviruses

Adenoviruses

Influenzaviruses

Parainfluenzaviruses

Respiratory syncytial virus

Enteroviruses

Herpes simplex virus (Gonococci, Chlamydia trachomatis)

Herpes simplex virus (Gonococci)

Human papillomaviruses

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