References

Abed Y, Nehme B, Baz M, Boivin G (2008) Activity of the neuraminidase inhibitor A-315675 against oseltamivir-resistant influenza neuraminidases of N1 and N2 subtypes. Antiviral Res 77 163-166 Achyuthan KE, Achyuthan AM (2001) Comparative enzymology, biochemistry and pathophysiology of human exo-alpha-sialidases (neuraminidases). Compar Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 129 29-64 Air GM, Laver WG (1989) The neuraminidase of influenza virus. Proteins 6 341-356 Amaro RE, Minh DDL, Cheng LS,...

Other Inhibitors of Viral Enzymes and Functions

RUbsamen-Waigmann 3 IntegraseInhibitors 4 Helicase 5 Terminase 6 Maturation Assembly 7 Conclusions Abstract Until the end of the 1970s, the mainstays of antiviral chemotherapy were nucleoside analogues that targeted virus polymerase, in particular, the herpesvirus DNA polymerase. The scourge of HIV triggered an unprecedented commitment to identify novel antivirals, and these efforts transformed antiviral therapy into the modern, sophisticated treatment form...

Non Nucleoside Inhibitors of HIV Reverse Transcriptase NNRTIs

Combination anti-HIV chemotherapy, commonly referred to as highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), has led to a dramatic reduction in mortality and morbidity in HIV-infected patients (Lee et al. 2001). Thus far, over 20 anti-HIV drugs have been approved for the treatment of HIV infection. Despite the availability of these approved anti-retroviral drugs, there is still a need for new anti-retrovirals to improve convenience, reduce toxicity and, of particular and growing importance, to...

Maturation Assembly Inhibitors

Virus maturation and assembly at the cell membrane or the nuclear membrane has long been seen as a potential target for antiviral compounds. For the virus to mature and be released in a conformation that will insure stability and survival of the viral genome in the extracellular environment, the protein subunits of the capsid or nucle-ocapsids have to be transported to the assembly point where they will form the final particles around the viral nucleic acid. If this process does not occur in an...

Novel Antiviral Strategies

The antiviral strategies discussed earlier as well as all antiviral drugs available to date are based on the principles of conventional chemotherapy. However, recent discoveries and developments in molecular biology have opened perspectives for alternative approaches of intervention. An important fraction of novel approaches involves the targeted silencing of viral gene expression through either specific degradation of a viral messenger RNA or by blocking its translation into protein. Antisense...

Biochemistry of HIV1 Protease and Development of Inhibitors

The main features of HIV-1 protease expression and processing have been reviewed (Swanstrom and Wills 1997). The protease is encoded in the viral pro gene, located downstream of the gag gene and upstream of the pol gene, which encodes the viral polymerase and integrase. It is expressed as part of a large polyprotein precursor, the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor. Given the dimeric nature of the viral protease, it is clear that this Gag-Pro-Pol precursor must dimerize to allow the protease to become...