Herpes Simplex Ebooks Catalog

Stop Herpes Now

You'll discover: What foods are bad for you, encouraging outbreaks. What foods are good for discouraging outbreaks. The connection between genital herpes and stress. What herbs actually suppress the herpes virus. How to heal your body naturally and safely. How to manage stress in your life.

Stop Herpes Now Overview

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Acipenserid herpesvirus 1 AciHV1 An

Unassigned member of the family Herpesviridae, isolated from juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, suffering mortality during rearing in north-west American hatcheries. The virus replicates in white sturgeon epidermal cell cultures, inducing syncytia. Associated with epidermal hyperplasia and necrosis in the fish. The virus could be transmitted to juvenile white sturgeon but not to trout. Synonym white sturgeon herpesvirus 1. Hedrick RP et al (1991) Dis Aquat Org 11, 49

Aciclovir And Other Antiherpes Drugs

Nucleoside analogue predecessors of aciclovir such as idoxuridine (IDU) and trifluorothymidine (TFT) were useful for treating superficial herpes infections (including those of the eye), whilst adenine arabinoside (ara A) had an important and pioneering role in the treatment of herpes encephalitis and serious paediatric infections. However, the advent of aciclovir transformed the often difficult clinical management of herpetic infections and these earlier discovered drugs, with the possible exception of TFT, are no longer used. Aciclovir is used as a prophylactic, before surgery for example, to prevent recurrent herpes type I infections in bone marrow and heart transplant patients, and therapeutically to prevent spread of mucocutaneous infections in already infected and immune compromised persons. It has also been shown to be very effective in saving lives when used to treat herpes encephalitis. Aciclovir is also used against recurrent HSV infections, particularly those of the genital...

Herpes simplex virus latency

There are two closely related types of herpes simplex virus type 1 (facial, HSV-1) and type 2 (genital, HSV-2). Both establish latent infections in humans, and reactivation from such infections is important to virus spread. Some details concerning latent infection by herpes simplex HSV infection in the eye or the footpad of mice can lead to a localized infection with spread of virus to the CNS and then to the brain. Although some animals die, as shown in Fig. 3.6, survivors maintain a latent infection in sensory nerve ganglia. During this latent infection, no infectious virus can be recovered from nerve tissue, but if the nerve ganglia are explanted (dissected, dissociated and maintained on a feeder layer of cultured cells), virus will eventually appear and begin to replicate. This observation demonstrates both that the viral genome is intact in the latently infected neuron, and that virus is not present in infectious form until something else occurs. Fig. 3.6 Analysis of the...

Herpes Simplex Virus Amplicon Vectors

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) amplicon vectors are plasmid-based vectors that take advantage of the natural neurotropism of the herpes virus. These vectors are capable of transducing a broad host of dividing and postmitotic cells. Efficient transduction of neuronal cells makes this vector system a powerful method to study neuron-specific phenomena. HSV amplicons possess a transgene capacity of approximately 130 kb, making them uniquely suited for the introduction of one or more foreign genes whose expression can be regulated by large and complex cellular promoters. This is in contrast to other vector systems such as retroviral-based vectors, recombinant adenoviral, and adeno-associated viral vectors, which have limited transgene capacity (4.5-8 kb). HSV ampli-cons are episomally expressed, which precludes random integration into the host genome, virtually eliminating potential oncogenic phenotypes. Lastly, HSV amplicons can now be packaged into infectious virus, which are devoid of...

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 6 CeHV6 An

Unassigned species in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Genome DNA is 52 G+C. Causes a severe, often fatal, exan-thematous disease in captive vervet monkeys. Antibodies to the virus are rare among monkeys in the wild but the infection spreads rapidly when they are brought together in captivity. Sub-clinical infections are common, but in severe cases there are necrotic hemorrhagic lesions in the lungs, intestine, liver and other organs. Other monkeys, mice and rabbits are resistant to infection. Virus replicates with CPE in vervet monkey kidney cell cultures, also in human thyroid, Vero cells and many other cell lines. Produces no pocks on the CAM and does not kill the embryo. The virus is strongly cell-associated. Antigenically very closely related to Human herpesvirus 3. Synonyms Liverpool vervet monkey virus vervet monkey herpesvirus SA12 virus.

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 8 CeHV8 A

Species in the genus Cytomegalovirus. Causes persistent infection of rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Genome DNA is 52 G+C. Synonym rhesus monkey cytomegalovirus. Cervid herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1) Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9 (CeHV-9) A species in the genus Varicellovirus. Causes mild exanthematous disease in captive rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Synonyms Medical Lake macaque her-pesvirus simian varicella herpesvirus, Liverpool vervet herpesvirus.

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 10 CeHV

10) An unassigned species in the family Herpesviridae. Appears to be a common infection of rhesus monkeys but there is no evidence that it causes disease in them. Isolated by co-cultivation of rhesus blood leukocytes with simian or human fibroblasts such as Wl-38 or MRC-5 cells. Causes CPE within 6-8 days, which slowly progresses. On staining with acridine orange, multiple green inclusions are seen in the nucleus but not in the cytoplasm. More than half the virus infectivity is cell-associated. Experimental inoculation of mice, hamsters and rabbits caused no obvious disease. Infection of rhesus monkeys resulted in a rise in antibodies. No cross-neutralization could be demonstrated with a range of other human and simian her-pesviruses. There appear to be at least two antigenic types. Synonym rhesus leukocyte-associated herpesvirus, strain 1. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 12 (CeHV-12) A Synonyms baboon herpesvirus baboon lymphotropic herpesvirus herpesvirus papio papio Epstein-Barr...

Channel catfish herpesvirus CCHV

Ictalurid herpesvirus 1. chelonid herpesvirus 1 (ChHV-1) An unas-signed species in the family Herpesviridae. Epizootics of grey patch disease were observed in green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, kept in captivity in the West Indies. Two types of lesion were seen papules and spreading grey patches 7-8 weeks after hatching. Intranuclear inclusions were present in sections of the lesions and herpesvirus-like particles were present in scrapings from the lesions. The disease could be transmitted between turtles by a cell-free extract. Fibropapillomas of both green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, in Florida appear to be caused by the same chelonid herpesvirus 1 (ChHV-1) herpesvirus, found only in association with the tumor cells. The virus could not be cultivated in chelonian cell lines, which support the replication of other chelonian herpesviruses. Synonyms green sea turtle herpesvirus grey patch disease agent of green sea turtle grey patch disease of...

Gorilla rhadinoherpesvirus 1 GorRHV1

During a study of chimpanzees and gorillas from Cameroon and Gabon, a herpesvirus genetically similar to Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus was detected by PCR amplification of green sea turtle herpesvirus gray patch disease agent of green sea turtle Synonym for chelonid herpes-virus 1.

Macropodid herpesvirus 1 MaHV1 An

Unassigned species in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Isolated from a culture of kidney cells of a parma wallaby, Macropus parma. The animal was one of a number with a fatal generalized disease taken from Kawan Island in Auckland Bay, New Zealand. The culture developed foci of CPE which extended rapidly. Experimental infection of Parma wallabies causes a severe generalized disease with lesions in lungs and liver. Antibodies are found in a wide range of macropods (kangaroos and wallabies) from different parts of Australia. No CPE in bovine, mouse or hamster cells. The DNA is distinct from other herpesviruses, G+C 53 . macropodid herpesvirus 1 (MaHV-1) Synonym Parma wallaby herpesvirus.

Medical Lake macaque herpesvirus

Synonym for Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9. Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 (MeHV-1) A species in the genus 'Marek's disease-like viruses' in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. Isolated from a kidney cell culture of normal turkeys. Not pathogenic for turkeys. Causes viremia in chickens and protective immunity against Marek's disease virus 1 (GaHV2). Used as a vaccine against Marek's disease. The complete DNA sequence of MeHV-1 was obtained recently and compared to that of GaHV-2. Synonym turkey herpesvirus 1. 8-methoxypsoralen (Methoxsalen) A naturally occurring furocoumarin which has photosensitizing properties in the skin of guinea pigs and humans. Albino guinea pigs with cutaneous infection by Human herpesvirus showed significant favorable response to treatment with this drug and long-wave UV light. Treatment was effective even after virus multiplication had begun and lesions had appeared.

Phalacrocoracid herpesvirus 1 PhHV

1) An unassigned species in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated on the CAM from a young little pied cormorant, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos. Other birds and rodents are resistant. No evidence of pathogenicity for cormorants. Replicates on the CAM, producing pocks. Synonyms cormorant herpesvirus 1 Lake Victoria cormorant herpesvirus. phasianid herpesvirus 1 Synonym for Gallid herpesvirus 1. phasianid herpesvirus 2 Synonym for Gallid herpesvirus 2.

Pseudorabies virus PRV See Suid herpesvirus

Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Isolated in Brazil in 1931 from parrots especially of the genus Amazona, in which it causes weakness, diarrhea, coma and death in 3-7 days. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus sp, are also highly susceptible. Disease is not produced on experimental inoculation of guinea pigs, mice, pigeons, chickens or turkeys. The virus has also been isolated from aviary birds in the USA. It can be propagated on the CAM where it produces white plaques and kills the embryo. Replicates with CPE in chick kidney cell cultures. Synonyms Pacheco's disease virus parrot herpesvirus Pacheco's parrot virus

Salivary gland virus See cytomegalovirus group

Salmonid herpesvirus 1 (SaHV-1) An unassigned virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from a post-spawning steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri. Chum salmon fry, Oncorhynchus keta, are also susceptible. Synonym herpesvirus salmonis. salmonid herpesvirus 2 (SaHV-2) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, in Japan. Causes renal failure and liver atrophy in yamame (landlocked O. masou). sand rat herpesvirus Synonym for murid herpesvirus 6. sand rat nuclear inclusion agent Synonym for murid herpesvirus 6.

Nuclear inclusions associated with herpesvirus replication are linked to ND10PML Bodies

Replication compartments are formed from a number of different discrete foci that are induced early in infection and whose interrelatedness is not fully understood. The initial stages of productive herpesvirus infection are, however, intimately linked with nuclear structures called ND10 bodies (illustrated in Fig. 8) Ishov and Maul (1996), Maul et al. (1996), review by Borden (2002) . Live cell studies have shown that the immediate early regulatory protein ICP4, which binds viral DNA, forms discrete foci as early as 30-min postinfection (Fig. 8A). These initially appear close to the nuclear envelope, possibly at sites where the genome first enters the nucleus following capsid disassembly at nuclear pores (Everett and Murray, 2005), and are then seen throughout the nucleus (Everett et al., 2004). ICP4 foci are seen juxtaposed to the ND10 marker promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) some 60-min later. The early and late regulatory protein ICP27 is recruited to ICP4 foci 2-h postinfection...

Walleye epidermal hyperplasia See percid herpesvirus

Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1 (WEHV-1) A species in the genus Epsilonretrovirus. Causes discrete epidermal hyperplasia on the skin of walleyes distinct from the diffuse epidermal hyperplasia caused by percid herpesvirus 1. The virus is distinguishable from Walleye dermal sarcoma virus by phyloge-netic analysis of the genome.

Inhibitors Of Herpes Simplex Virus And Human Cytomegalovirus

The eight human herpes viruses cause a variety of pathophysiological conditions ranging in severity from mild cold sores to life threatening illnesses in immunocompromised patients. While herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 typically cause localized cold sores and genital herpes, other members of the herpesviridae family can be more problematic. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent in chicken pox whilst human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is particularly difficult for the immunocompromised population, including AIDS patients where clinical manifestations include retinitis, colitis, oesophagitis, and pneumonia (78). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is responsible for mononucleosis in immunocompetent patients and lymphoma in immunocompromised individuals. Finally, HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8 are the remaining known pathogenic herpes viruses of which HHV-8 is responsible for the debilitating effects of Kaposi's sarcoma. Nine antiviral agents are licensed to treat infections caused by the...

The replication of the prototypical alphaherpesvirus HSV The HSV virion

All herpesviruses possess similar enveloped icosahedrons. The envelope of HSV contains 10 or more glycoproteins. The matrix (called the tegument for obscure reasons) lies between the envelope and the capsid and contains at least 15 20 proteins. The capsid itself is made up of six proteins the major one, VP5, is the 150,000-dalton major capsid protein. VP5 is also called Ul19 for the position of its gene on the viral genetic map. A computer-enhanced model of the HSV capsid structure is shown in Fig. 9.3. A more conventional electron microscopic view is shown in Fig. 17.1. The molar ratio of HSV capsid proteins is tabulated in Table 11.2 - various capsid proteins are present in widely differing amounts. While each herpesvirus is different, a number of general features can be illustrated with the HSV-1 genome. The HSV-1 genome is linear, and is 152,000 base pairs long. With HSV, the left end of the genome is set as 0 map unit and the right is 1.00 map unit therefore, each 0.1 map unit is...

Cytoplasmic inclusions form during late stages of herpesvirus tegumentation The cytoplasmic assembly compartment

The tegument layer of alphaherpesviruses is composed of at least 15 different proteins (Mettenleiter, 2002). US11, UL17, UL47, UL48, and UL49 are components of the tegument, and all are localized to the nucleus (if not exclusively) during the productive life cycle of the virus (Fuchs et al., 2002 Hutchinson et al., 2002 Kopp et al., 2002 Roller and Roizman, 1992 Taus et al., 1998). UL48 may play a role in egress from the nucleus, though this has not been unequivocally established (Mossman et al., 2000). Therefore, it is likely that some tegument proteins are acquired in or during viral egress from the nuclear inclusions. Recently, cytoplasmic aggresome-like structures have been described in cells infected with HHV-2.1 These contain the major capsid protein, tegument proteins, envelope glycoproteins, and markers for the Golgi complex (Nozawa et al., 2004). The latter finding is particularly interesting because herpesvirus envelopment involves membranes from the TGN (Mettenleiter et...

Herpes gladiatorum herpes rugbeiorum

Herpes simiae virus Synonym for her-pesvirus B. herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 There are two antigenic types herpes simplex type 1 is a synonym for Human herpesvirus 1 herpes simplex type 2 is a synonym for Human herpesvirus 2. herpes simplex virus group herpes simplex virus group Synonym for the genus Simplexvirus. herpes venatorum Synonym for scrum-pox. Herpesviridae A diverse family of DNA viruses with characteristic morphology. Classification is based formally on genetic content. The virion is 100-200nm in diameter. Buoyant density (CsCl) 1.20-1.29g ml. Consists of four structural components (1) the core, a protein fibril-lar spool on which the DNA is wrapped (2) the capsid, 100-110nm in diameter, composed of 12 pentameric and 150 hexameric capsomeres arranged with icosahedral symmetry (3) the tegument, an amorphous asymmetrical layer between the capsid and (4) the envelope, a bilayer membrane with surface projections. The capsomeres are hexagonal in cross-section and have a...

Callitrichine herpesvirus 2 CalHV2 An

Unassigned member of the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from the salivary glands of white-lipped marmosets, Sanguinus fuscicollis. Synonym marmoset cytomegalovirus. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1) A species in the genus Varicellovirus. There is only one serotype, which has worldwide distribution. A natural infection in dogs, often silent but may cause necrotizing rhinitis and pneumonia, frequently fatal in newborn puppies. The necropsy findings are predominantly disseminated focal necroses and hemorrhages in kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen, thymus and brain. May cause tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) in older animals but this condition can also be caused by an adenovirus. Replicates in primary dog kidney cell cultures and all canine cell lines that have been tested with CPE. No CPE in human, bovine or porcine cell cultures. Synonyms canine herpesvirus canine tra-cheobronchitis virus kennel cough virus.

Herpesvirus Replication And Latency The herpesviruses as a group

The herpesviruses are extremely successful enveloped DNA viruses. They have been identified in all vertebrate species studied, and extend into other classes of the animal kingdom (oysters, for example). Their replication strategy involves a close adaptation to the immune defense of the host, and it is possible that their evolutionary origins as herpesviruses lie in the origins of immune memory. Eight discrete human herpesviruses are known at this time each causes a characteristic disease. Many herpesviruses are neurotropic (i.e., they actively infect nervous tissue) all such viruses are collectively termed alpha-herpesviruses. Three human herpesviruses belong to this group the closely related herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), which are the primary agents of recurrent facial and genital herpetic lesions, respectively and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which is the causative agent of chicken pox and shingles. VZV is more distantly related to HSV. Pseudorabies virus...

Herpes And Related Viruses

Since many of the agents utilized for this disease are nucleosides and nucleoside analogs, most find use in other related herpes therapy such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella-zoster virus. Like many of the other nucleoside analogs, penciclovir (33), Another set of related viruses, human herpesvirus 6 and 7 (HHV-6, HHV-7), has been studied regarding their sensitivity to a variety of these nucleoside and non-nucleoside agents. It was shown that cldofovir (CDF) (35), an oxymethylphosphonate analog, showed better activity than ACV against both HHV-6 and HHV-7. Interestingly, some differences were noted in selectivity of HHV-6 vs. -7 to these agents inferring a difference in the targeted viral enzymes (61). The tricyclic derivative, SCH-43478 (36) has exhibited potent activity in cell culture assays comparable to acyclovir (59). Although sc administration of this compound showed equivalent efficacy to acyclovir in a guinea pig lesion model, it was not developed as a clinical...

Columbid herpesvirus 1 CoHV1 An

Unassigned species in the family Herpesviridae. A natural and widespread infection of pigeons. Not transmissible to chickens, ducks, geese or quail, but budgerigars and turtle doves can be infected experimentally. Related viruses have been isolated from falcons, falconid herpesvirus 1, and owls, strigid her-pesvirus 1. Only one serotype has been found. Causes conjunctivitis, respiratory lesions and focal necrosis of the liver, but is usually carried by apparently normal birds as a latent infection. Replicates with CPE in primary chicken embryo fibrob-lasts. Propagated on the CAM it produces plaques and kills the embryo in 4 days. Synonyms inclusion disease of pigeons virus pigeon herpesvirus.

Herpesvirus replication generates inclusions in the nucleus

Herpesviruses enter the cell by fusing their envelopes with the plasma membrane, whereon the naked nucleocapsids migrate to nuclear pores, possibly along microtubules (Granzow et al., 1997 Sodeik et al., 1997) reviewed by Smith and Enquist (2002) . Nuclear inclusions housing herpesvirus DNA replication are globular and can occupy the majority of the nucleus (de Bruyn Kops and Knipe, 1988 Randall and Dinwoodie, 1986 Taylor et al., 2003). They are identified through the presence of the viral DNA-binding protein encoded by the UL29 gene, which is also known as infected cell protein 8 (ICP8). A minimum set of seven genes, UL5, UL8, UL9, UL29, UL30, UL42, and UL52, has been identified as necessary for viral DNA replication (Challberg, 1991). A plasmid trans-fection system has shown in vitro these can form globular nuclear compartments that are sites of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and visually are similar to those formed during infection (Lukonis and Weller, 1997 Zhong and...

Nuclear inclusions also form as sites of herpesvirus assembly The assemblon

A second prominent nuclear inclusion induced by herpesvirus infection is the assemblon (Ward et al., 1996b). This is the site where capsid proteins accumulate and assemble into nucleocapsids (Fig. 8B). The assembly of herpesvirus nucleocapsids has been researched in great detail at the ultrastructural level facilitated by a cell-free system for reconstituting the particles (Heymann et al., 2003 Newcomb et al., 1994,1996). The mature herpesvirus capsid is icosahedral with a T 16 symmetry and is composed of 150 hexons and 11 pentons of the major capsid protein UL19. The place of the remaining penton is taken by a 12-mer of the portal protein UL6, which by analogy with bacteriophage may be the site of genome entry. Nucleocapsids mature from fragile procapsids, through B capsids that lack DNA and contain the internal scaffold protein UL26.5, to C capsids that contain the viral genome. The relationship between assemblons and sites of viral DNA replication has been a topic of some...

Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is caused by one of two types of herpes simplex virus HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both viruses can infect the genitals and travel to other parts of the body, including the hands and the eyes. Usually, however, HSV-1 infects the mouth, causing small, painful blisters on the lips, while HSV-2 infects the genitals. If you have had one type of herpes infection, you can still get the other, although it is likely to be a less severe infection. Neither infection can be cured they can only be controlled. The symptoms of genital herpes usually appear within a week of infection in the form of itching, tingling, and soreness of a reddish patch on the skin in the groin area, which is followed shortly by small, red, painful blisters. In men these can occur on the penis, scrotum, buttocks, anus, or thighs. The blisters break, causing circular, open sores that develop a crust in a few days. During this time, walking may be painful and urination difficult. The person may develop a fever and feel...

Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infects mucocutaneous sites and is one of the major causes of genital ulcer disease. It causes both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections and subsequent latent infection of nerve cells. HSV causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in the central nervous system (CNS) of infants (encephalitis with or without disseminated visceral infection) and adults. In the United States, at least 10 to 20 of all viral encephalitis has been estimated to be caused by HSV (Hofgartner et al., 1999). Presently, effective antiviral therapy is possible if these are administered early (Whitley et al., 1998). Thus, rapid laboratory diagnosis is important for minimizing the death rate and the morbid sequelae of HSV infection.

Herpesviruses

Herpesviruses are large dsDNA viruses with genomes ranging in size from 120 to 250 kbp. Herpesvirus genes are expressed in a regulated cascade starting with the immediate early a genes, then early p genes, and finally two subsets of late g genes, g1 and g2. Complete herpesvirus particles have four main layers, the core containing DNA, an icosahedral capsid, a poorly defined layer of protein called tegument, and finally the viral envelope containing several glycoproteins. Genome synthesis and packaging and capsid assembly occur in inclusions in the nucleus. Nucleocapsids then obtain tegument in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm, or both, and the viral envelope is acquired exclusively in the cytoplasm see Mettenleiter (2002) and Mettenleiter et al. (2006) for more thorough analysis . The transfer of virus from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and acquisition of tegument appears well defined for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) (Roffman et al., 1990) but is controversial for the...

Herpes Virus

Herpes viruses are large DNA viruses (see Figure 3-4) categorized into eight distinct types that replicate in skin cells where the virus causes lesions. In the case of herpes simplex, the lesions are often called cold sores or fever blisters. These sores heal within a couple of weeks, but they recur, often when a person is under stress. A variety of stressors, such as sunlight, activate the virus. The source of recurring outbreaks appears to be infected nerve cells that harbor the virus in a dormant state and protect it from attack by the human immune system. Acyclovir is an antiherpes agent that acts as a chain terminator, thereby blocking herpes virus DNA replication. In this case, conversion of acyclovir to its active form is carried out efficiently by a viral enzyme but not Figure 3-4 Herpes virus. Transmission electron micrograph of herpes simplex virus. Figure 3-4 Herpes virus. Transmission electron micrograph of herpes simplex virus. by host enzymes. This selectivity has made...

Nurse Practitioner John Hunter Clinic Chelsea and Westminster Hospital

After graduating with a science degree in 1983 Jane worked in an analytical chemistry lab before entering the nursing profession in 1985. Following nurse training she worked for four years as a medical nurse. In 1992 Jane left the UK and worked on an inpatient HIV unit in New York City. In 1995 she returned to the UK and studied for the Post Graduate Diploma in Health Promotion at Southbank University. In 1996 she started to work in sexual health and qualified as a contraception nurse in 2001. She was awarded an MSc in sexually transmitted infections and HIV by University College, London in 2004. Jane is the nursing representative on the Herpes Simplex Advisory Panel within The British Association for Sexual Health and HIV. Jane's main interest within sexual health is the effect of stigma associated with sexually transmitted infections, and she has presented both nationally and internationally her research regarding stigma and genital herpes infection. She is currently a nurse...

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Acyclic nucleoside analogs A series of antiviral compounds active against various species in the family Herpesviridae. They include acyclovir, bucyclovir, ganci-clovir, penciclovir and 2HM-HBG. acycloguanosine 9-(2-hydroxyethoxy-methyl) guanine A nucleoside analog. An antiviral agent with a potent and highly specific action against Human herpesvirus 1, 2 and 3 both in vitro and in animal models of skin, eye and brain infections. It is only weakly active against Human herpesvirus 5. The drug is selectively phosphorylated by herpesvirus-induced thymidine kinase, and once phosphorylated is a potent inhibitor of herpesvirus-induced DNA polymerase. In a clinical study, 24 patients with dendritic corneal epithelial ulcers were treated by minimal wiping debridement, 12 then receiving the drug topically as eye ointment, the others being given a placebo. Seven of the placebo patients showed recurrence of herpetic corneal lesions within a week. There was no recurrence in the patients receiving...

Adenoassociated virus 16 AAV16

Replication is dependent upon the presence of a helper adenovirus for complete virus production, but infectious DNA and antigens demonstrable by immuno-fluorescence are made in the presence of a helper herpes-type virus. Can also establish a latent infection in the absence of a helper virus. Replicates in cells which support adenovirus replication to a higher titer than the adenovirus whose replication may be depressed. Not genetically related to adenovirus. Mature virus particles contain either positive or negative strands of DNA which are complementary, and after extraction anneal to form double-stranded DNA. There are a number of serotypes. The type species is type 2. Types 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are primate adeno-associated viruses. There are also bovine, avian, canine, ovine and equine types. Antibodies can be found in human sera, but none of these viruses is known to be pathogenic. The use of AAV as a vector for potential gene therapy in a clinical...

Ascending Cholangitis Following Portoenterostomy

Extrahepatic biliary atresia is an obliterative cholangiopathy that involves all or part of the extrahepatic biliary tree and, in many instances, the intrahepatic bile ducts. In the U.S.A., from 400 to 600 new cases of biliary atresia are encountered annually (46). The diagnosis is usually suggested by the persistence of jaundice for six weeks or more after birth. Several factors have been considered for the pathogenesis of extrahepatic biliary atresia, including viral infection (e.g., cytomegalovirus) (47), metabolic insults, and abnormalities in bile duct morphogenesis. Although selected patients benefit from prompt diagnosis and Kasai portoenterostomy surgical intervention (48,49) within the first 60 days of life, many ultimately require liver transplantation because of portal hypertension, recurrent cholangitis, and cirrhosis (50).

AKR mink cell focusinducing virus A

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AIHV-1) An involvement of pharynx and lungs. There is often keratitis and nervous symptoms. Epidemiological evidence suggests that infection can be transmitted to cattle from African antelope of the family Bovidae, subfamily Alcelaphinae which includes wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus and C. gnu, hartebeest, Alcelaphus sp and topi, Damaliscus sp, which may carry the virus as a latent infection. The virus can be transmitted experimentally to cattle and rabbits. There is replication in cell cultures of fetal bovine thyroid, adrenal, kidney, spleen and lung. The virus will also replicate in Vero cells. Synonyms bovine epitheliosis virus bovine herpesvirus 3 malignant catarrhal fever virus Snotsiekte virus wildebeest herpesvirus. Alcelaphine herpesvirus 2 (AIHV-2) An Synonym hartebeest herpesvirus. Allerton virus Synonym for Bovine herpesvirus 2. Alphaherpesvirinae A subfamily of the family Herpesviridae. Replicate rapidly, usually with CPE in fibroblasts in...

Mycosis fungoides

The aetiology of mycosis fungoides remains unknown. A genetic predisposition may have a role in some cases, and a familial occurrence of the disease has been reported in a few instances 6,7 . Association with long-term exposure to various allergens has also been advocated, as well as exposure to environmental agents and association with chronic skin disorders and viral infections 8-12 . Recently, seropositivity for cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been observed at unusually high frequencies in patients with mycosis fungoides, suggesting a role for this virus in the pathogenesis of the disease

American hemorrhagic fever viruses A

A cloning-amplifying vector consisting of repeat units of herpes simplex virus (HSV) defective genomes. Can replicate in the presence of standard HSV helper virus. Co-transfection of cells with helper virus DNA and amplicon generates concatameric defective genomes composed of multiple reiterations of the repeats. Foreign DNA sequences can be introduced to form concatameric chimeric defective genomes that are efficiently packaged and can be stably propagated in serially passaged virus stocks. 2. The product nucleic acid obtained from a polymerase chain reaction.

The Virus And The Host

The pathogenesis can in most cases be ascribed to degeneration and death of the infected cells. This may be mediated directly by the virus or by the immune clearance mechanisms. Denatured proteins elicit local inflammatory and systemic reactions. The local inflammatory response dominates the clinical picture in some infections, such as common colds, croup and bronchiolitis, while cell and organ failure or dysfunction is typical in poliomyelitis and hepatitis. Some infections are particularly dangerous to the fetus (CMV infection, rubella) or to the child in the perinatal period (herpes simplex, coxsackie B, varicella-zoster, hepatitis B and HIV infections). Bronchiolitis is seen only in the first 2 years of life, and croup mostly in children below school age. Otherwise the clinical course is not markedly different in children compared with adults.

Amplified reverse transcriptase AmpRT

Anatid herpesvirus 1 (AnHV-1) An unas-signed species in the family Herpesviridae. Differs from other her-pesviruses with respect to its structure and maturation. Mature virus particles are seen accumulated in long extensions of the endoplasmic reticulum their size varies between 160 and 380nm, and they are embedded in an osmiophilic matrix. In addition, capsids (about 80nm in diameter) and developmental stages of the viral nucleoid (about 40nm in diameter) are encountered in the nuclei of infected cells. A natural infection in domestic ducks, and possibly of mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, in the UK. There is nasal and ocular discharge, and diarrhea, with up to 97 mortality. At post-mortem examination petechial bleedings in mucosal membranes and many organs are prevalent. In less acute cases hemorrhagic or pseudomembra-nous pharyngitis, esophagitis and cloacitis are frequently observed. Typical herpesvirus particles are observed by electron microscopy in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of...

Therapy And Prophylaxis

Some progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs in recent years. Main obstacles to a rapid breakthrough seem to be the rather late appearance of symptoms in relation to tissue damage and the potential cytotoxic effect of inhibitors of virus replication. Examples of antiviral drugs which are used clinically are aciclovir and trifluorothymidine in herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections, azidothymidine in HIV infection and interferon in chronic active hepatitis B and C. Amantadine has proved effective in the prophylaxis of influenza A. Antivirals are dealt with in Chapter 4.

Aseptic lymphocytic choriomeningitis

Asinine herpesvirus 1 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 6. asinine herpesvirus 2 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 7. asinine herpesvirus 3 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 8. Ateline herpesvirus 1 (AtHV-1) A species in the genus Simplexvirus, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, isolated from a fatal infection of a 5-month-old female spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi, born in a Californian zoo. The virus kills suckling mice and marmosets on inoculation. Synonym spider monkey herpesvirus. Ateline herpesvirus 2 (AtHV-2) A species in the genus Rhadinovirus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, which infects spider monkeys. Synonym herpes ateles 2. ateline herpesvirus 3 (AtHV-3) An unas-signed member of the family Herpesviridae. Originally isolated from a cell culture of kidney tissue from a Guatemalan spider monkey, Ateles geof-froyi, which developed characteristic herpes-type CPE. Four isolates from peripheral lymphocytes of Colombian spider monkeys, Ateles fusciceps robustus, are antigenically slightly...

Laboratory Diagnosis

The virus can be demonstrated directly by electron microscopy (gastroenteritis viruses, orfvirus). Alternatively, infectious virus may be demonstrated after inoculation of cell cultures (enteroviruses, adenoviruses, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus), embryonated eggs (influenzaviruses) or laboratory animals (coxsackievirus). Clinicians should carefully follow the instructions issued by their local laboratories with regard to sampling and transportation, especially if infectivity has to be maintained. Viral genomes can be demonstrated by various nucleic acid hybridization techniques, either in situ or in tissue extracts (slot blot, Southern blot, in situ hybridization) using labelled DNA or RNA probes, or by methods that include amplification of the viral nucleic acid such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR). Both PCR and LCR are extremely sensitive, requiring strict precautions in the laboratory to avoid contamination. The gene technology methods...

Confounding Problems Controlling Drug Costs And Best Drug Selection Owing To Pharmaceutical Company Activities

Direct-to-consumer advertising policy by industry has also indirectly become a problem for therapeutics committees. These advertisements often encourage consumers to demand pricey drugs over cheaper ones that work just as well. The clinicians on the hospital staff then often make similar demands to the therapeutics committee to add the more expensive agents to the formulary. The percentage of industry spending on direct-to-consumer advertising has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. A review of this activity in 2002 by Competitive Media Reporting showed that about 60 of a company's spending on a drug may come from this form of advertising. The major classes of drugs that use this form of advertisement include, in decreasing order, anti-inflammatories, antihistamines, antihyperlipidemics, antiasthmatics, antiulcer drugs, antidepressants, erectile dysfunction drugs, weight loss drugs, oral contraceptives, genital herpes drugs, toenail fungus agents, and hormones. It is...

What infectious diseases can be contracted from a transfusion and how significant is that risk

At this point in time, the blood supply is as safe as it as ever been, with risks of contracting hepatitis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a developed nation estimated at 1 in 2.4 million units transfused. Donated blood is tested for hepatitis B (hepatitis B core antigen), hepatitis C (hepatitis C antibody), syphilis, HIV, human T cell lymphotropic virus, West Nile virus, and cytomegalovirus. Because of improvments in testing, the window between donation and seroconversion is becoming increasingly narrow.

Autonomous replicating sequence ARS A

Antigenically distinct from primate adeno-associated viruses. A defective parvovirus that accompanies most avian adenovirus infections in the field, and contaminates most laboratory strains. Some herpesviruses can also provide helper activity to AAAV. Virus is easily isolated from feces or intestinal epithelial cells. Virion 18-20nm in diameter with a density (CsCl) of 1.43g ml. No evidence of pathogenicity has been found, but the presence of AAAV appears to reduce the pathogenicity of avian adenoviruses for 1- to 5-day-old chicks. Humans who work closely with chickens frequently develop antibodies to AAAV, which presumably multiplies with the help of a human adenovirus. Synonym quail parvovirus.

How Are New Antivirals Discovered

Generalized herpes and shingles infections and genital HSV infections Cytomegalovirus infections (e.g. pneumonia) Eye infections with HSV Chemists also believe that thousands of nucleoside analogues remain to be synthesized and tested as antivirals. Alternatively, these compounds may already be in existence and on the shelf as part of a completely unrelated biological screening programme. The now classic anti-herpes nucleoside analogue aciclovir was initially synthesized as an anti-cancer drug. Aciclovir is structurally related to the natural nucleoside 2' deoxyguanosine but has a disrupted sugar ring (acyclic). Nucleoside analogues are some of our most powerful antivirals and even more surprisingly some, like aciclovir, appear to Herpes simplex

How Important A Problem Is Drug Resistance

It must be acknowledged that the high mutation rates of the classic RNA viruses such as influenza and HIV will always result in 'resistance' problems for antiviral drugs. With influenza A virus a single mutation in the target M2 gene allows the mutated virus to escape from the inhibitory effects of amantadine (Table 4.3). Similarly with HIV-1, amino acid changes in the target viral reverse transcriptase enzyme allow the virus to replicate in the presence of zidovudine and other dideoxynucleoside analogues. Recent studies have shown that drug-resistant HIV mutants emerge within days of initiation of treatment of an infected patient with certain dideoxynucleoside analogues. This has led to the use of combination chemotherapy (highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)) using three inhibitors, two against the RT enzyme and one against the protease enzyme. With a DNA virus such as herpes the drug resistance problem is correspondingly less acute because of the lower virus mutation rates....

Angiogenesis In Kaposis Sarcoma An Example Of Combined Action Between Angiogenic And Inflammatory Inducers

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric, highly vascularized neoplasm, probably arising from a monoclonal population of circulating progenitor cells that home to multiple visceral and cutaneous sites (97,98). KS incidence is greatly enhanced in AIDS patients, being detected in about 20 of the affected individuals, who develop a particularly aggressive form (99). Four principal features of KS include the presence of spindle cells, which represent the core of the lesion an aberrant proliferation of endothelial cells with prominent angiogenesis the presence of infiltrating mononuclear cells and increased vascular permeability. The histogenesis of spindle cells is still debated, but recent data, showing the co-expression of endothelial and macrophage antigens, permit speculation that the origin of spindle cells is in a precursor that differentiates in normal tissue in the sinus-lining cells of spleen and lymph nodes (100). The molecular mechanisms regulating the differentiation of a...

How Are Antivirals Used In Clinical Practice

Two anti-herpes prodrugs and more recently an anti-influenza neuramini-dase inhibitor have been studied and licensed, which are inactive themselves but are converted by enzymes in the patient to the active antiviral (prodrugs). Most often antivirals are used therapeutically, being administered either after infection or even after the first clinical signs of the disease are noted. In this situation further progression of the disease may stop and or the virus infection may resolve more rapidly. Therapy is the favoured mode with HIV-1-infected patients, although the drug may be given before overt clinical signs of disease both to delay the time before early symptoms occur and also to lessen the chance of drug resistance occurring. There is still active debate about when to initiate chemotherapy, early in the disease or later. Aciclovir may be used to prevent recurrent herpes infections and this is a therapeutic use because the patient is already infected with the virus. The three...

Which Are The Clinically Effective Antivirals

Aciclovir, enabling less frequent doses and higher plasma levels. Similar in concept is the clinical application of the prodrug famciclovir which is converted enzymatically in the patient to the active anti-herpes nucleoside analogue drug penciclovir (Figure 4.4). An expanding focus is with hepatitis B virus where an estimated 5 of the world are chronic carriers of the virus and combination chemotherapy with lamivudine, adefovir and famciclovir is being tested experimentally.

Factors affecting the control of viral disease in populations

Despite our considerable abilities, not all viral diseases can be readily controlled even under the most favorable economic and social conditions. Flu virus variants arise by genetic mixing of human and animal strains, and it is not practical to attempt a widespread vaccination campaign with so many variables. HIV remains associated with lymphatic tissue in infected individuals even when antiviral drugs effectively eliminate virus replication. The intimate association of HIV with the immune system may make vaccination campaigns only partially effective. The ability of herpesviruses to establish latent infections and to reactivate suggests that a completely effective vaccine may be difficult if not impossible to generate.

Clinical Applications

Two distinct sizes of microspheres were used for simultaneous detection of two different antibodies and subsequently expanded to the use of four different sizes of microspheres to detect four different antibodies to cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus (McHugh et al., 1988) or antibodies against HIV proteins (Scillian et al., 1989). Size discrimination of microspheres allows simultaneous detection of small numbers of analytes, but the inability to distinguish aggregates of smaller microspheres from larger microspheres limits the extent of multiplexing that can be achieved.

Zidovudine And Dideoxynucleoside Analogues As Antiretrovirus Drugs

The dideoxynucleoside monophosphate is phosphorylated to the triphosphate, by cellular enzymes, and the triphosphate differentially inhibits the viral reverse transcriptase enzyme and has lesser effects on the cellular DNA polymerase. Unfortunately the phosphorylation to the active triphosphate occurs not only in virus-infected cells but also in normal cells, and this explains the side-effects of the drug. In contrast, as we have noted above, aciclovir triphosphate is only present in herpes-infected cells.

The Most Recent Past And The Future

Arguably the most important chemotherapeutic advances in the last years have been in the treatment of AIDS patients with drug combinations (HAART). Combination chemotherapy has now become the accepted clinical approach with HIV and will be rapidly extended to include new drugs and may be used in cases of chronic hepatitis B and C infection and influenza. Undoubtedly a clinical breakthrough has been the development of the two prodrugs, valaciclovir and famciclovir, to treat herpes infections. Fortunately drug resistance is not likely to be a major problem with herpesviruses. Two important antineuraminidase drugs against influenza have been licensed and a further two compounds are in development. These new possibilities in the clinical management of influenza have led to a renewed interest in the first antiviral, amantadine. important cause of skin cancer. New herpesviruses continue to be discovered, whilst only HHV1 and 2 are significantly inhibited by the existing drugs. Threats of...

Berne virus BEV See Equine torovirus

Betaherpesvirinae A subfamily of the family Herpesviridae. Nucleotide sequences of subfamily members form a distinct lineage within the family. Replicate relatively slowly remaining mainly cell-associated with spreading CPE. Cause enlargement of infected cells, hence the common name 'cytomegalovirus'. Latent infection in the salivary glands and other tissues is frequent. Large inclusion bodies ('owl eye' inclusions) containing DNA are often present in the nuclei and cytoplasm late in infection. The host range is usually narrow and they generally replicate best in fibroblasts. DNA mol. wt. 150 x 106, 240kb. G + C content 58 . Sequences from either or both termini may be present in an inverted form internally. Three genera are identified Cytomegalovirus, Muromegalovirus and Roseolovirus. The type species of the first is Human her-pesvirus 5, the second Murid herpesvirus 1 and the third Human herpesvirus 6. Synonym cytomegalovirus group. Betaherpesviruses Cytomegalovirus-related viruses....

The Glorious Pastand The New Challenges

The global eradication of smallpox stands as a landmark in the history of immunization. An intense combined international effort, The Smallpox Eradication Programme of 1967 organized through the World Health Organization (WHO), led to the complete elimination in 1977 of one of mankind's great scourges. A long time had passed since Jenner in l796 successfully inoculated a farmer's boy with pustule material from a dairymaid suffering from cowpox (see illustration to Chapter 41). Additional achievements during the 20th century have been the introduction of many new virus vaccines, e.g. polio, measles, rubella, mumps, rabies, yellow fever, influenza, varicella and hepatitis A and B. Vaccines against e.g. adenovirus, cytomega-lovirus, herpes simplex virus and rotavirus are currently being developed or are under clinical trials.

Blymphotropic Polyomavirus LpyV A

Boa herpesvirus An unassigned member of the family Herpesviridae. Synonym for boid herpesvirus 1. bobwhite quail herpesvirus Synonym for perdicid herpesvirus 1. boid herpesvirus 1 (BoiHV-1) An unas-signed member of the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from a young boa constrictor.

Bovine hemadsorbing enteric virus

Bovine herpes mammillitis virus Synonym for Bovine herpesvirus 2. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) A species in the genus Varicellovirus. A natural worldwide infection in cattle, but antibodies can also be found in mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, and ferrets are susceptible to disease in the USA. Wild ruminants in Africa are probably the original host. The virus has also been isolated from soft-shelled ticks, Ornithodorus coriaceus, collected from mule deer in western USA, but it is not clear whether ticks are a reservoir host. May cause a silent, mild infection, or acute disease of the whole respiratory tract. Mortality can be as high as 75 . In Europe it has been known to cause conjunctivitis and, notably, disease of the genital tract when lesions appear on the external genitalia. There is no evidence of antigenic difference between the respiratory and genital strains. Young goats infected experimentally develop fever in rabbits there is meningoencephalitis with paralysis of the hind...

Persistent viral infections

Herpesvirus infections and latency As detailed in Chapter 17, Part IV, hallmarks of herpesvirus infections are an initial acute infection followed by apparent recovery where viral genomes are maintained in the absence of infectious virus production in specific tissue. Latency is characterized by episodic reactivation (recrudescence) with ensuing (usually) milder symptoms of the original acute infection. Example viruses include HSV, EBV, and VZV. Effective immunity is vital for controlling and maintaining herpesvirus latency and localizing its sites of replication. Newborns not protected by maternal immunity are subject to profound disseminated HSV infections of their CNS (see below) if they encounter the virus, for instance by infection from a mother carrying a primary acute infection. Disseminated human CMV infections are a major cause of death in individuals undergoing immune suppression as a consequence of organ transplants. Further, CMV infections of the eye are a leading cause of...

B cells and antibodymediated immune responses in chronic neuroinflammation

Persistent intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis is a key feature in the CSF of the majority of MS patients (Thompson et al., 1979) and contributes to diagnostic decision making. In fact, two distinct CSF parameters are important in the context of MS the oligoclonal bands (OCB) and the Measles Rubella Herpes Zoster (MRZ) reaction. The OCB represent a distinct pattern of Ig in the CSF which cannot be found in the peripheral blood. They have a high sensitivity, being detectable in around 90 of MS patients. However, their presence is not restricted to MS, as they can be found transiently in many inflammatory CNS conditions as the expression of a humoral host response. For instance, Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific Ig can be detected in the CSF of patients suffering from HSV encephalitis, with the majority of antibodies directed against the pathogen (Vandvik et al., 1982). By contrast, OCB in MS have failed to display a predominant specificity inter- and intraindividually, as they...

Capping See capped terminus

Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) A species in the genus Varicellovirus. Isolated from kids, Capra hircus, with a severe generalized infection. Experimental infection of these animals produces a severe febrile disease, and in adult pregnant goats there is fever and abortion. Not pathogenic for lambs or calves. The virus replicates in bovine, rabbit and lamb cell cultures with CPE, but not in HeLa, Vero or chick embryo cells. It is antigenically related to, but distinct from, Bovine herpesvirus 1. Synonyms goat herpesvirus herpesvirus caprae.

Examples of viral encephalitis with grave prognosis Rabies

Herpes encephalitis Encephalitis induced by HSV infection is the result of a physiological accident of some sort. Normally, HSV's involvement with neurons of the CNS and brain is highly restricted, although HSV encephalitis occurs only very rarely, but can be a result of either primary infection or an aberrant reactivation. Exactly what features of viral infection or reactivation lead to encephalitis are unknown, but a lack of effective immunity appears to be a major factor. Certainly, there is a much higher risk of invasive HSV encephalitis in neonates and infants with primary HSV infection prior to full development of their own immune defenses. If diagnosed during early clinical manifestations of disease, HSV encephalitis can be treated effectively with antiviral drugs (see Chapter 8, Part II). But within a very short period of time (a few days at most), infection leads to massive necrotic destruction of brain tissue, coma, and death. Although clinical isolates of HSV are often high...

Caprine respiratory syncytial virus

Capuchin herpesvirus AL-5 Synonym for cebine herpesvirus 1. capuchin herpesvirus AP-18 Synonym for cebine herpesvirus 2. carp pox herpesvirus Synonym for cyprinid herpesvirus 1. Castleman's disease A rare B-cell lympho-proliferative disorder which has been associated with human herpes virus 8 infection.

Central nervous system viral infections

Many viruses such as rabies, measles, mumps and herpes simplex may infect the nervous system and cause serious disease. Viruses may enter the nervous system along nerves and through the blood. Once in the central nervous system viruses may cause acute or slow chronic infections. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CeHV-1) Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CeHV-1) A species in the family Herpesviridae. A natural infection of Asiatic macaque monkeys. 10 of newly caught rhesus monkeys have antibodies, and the virus is frequently present in kidney cell cultures of this animal. Reservoir species include Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. fuscata, M. arctoides, M. cyclopsis and M. radiata. Causes vesicular lesions on the tongue and lips, and sometimes of the skin. Infection of humans by monkey bites or other means leads to ascending myelitis or acute encephalitis almost all cases are fatal. Mice under 3 weeks old, day-old chicks and guinea pigs can be infected experimentally. Not all strains are...

Acyclic or Carbocyclic Nucleoside Analogues

Of the acyclic nucleoside analogues (Fig. 1), acyclovir and its prodrug valaciclovir, ganciclovir and its prodrug valganciclovir, penciclovir and its prodrug famciclovir have been formally licensed for clinical use. Except for (val)ganciclovir, which can lead to bone marrow suppression (i.e., neutropenia), the acyclic nucleoside analogues are generally well tolerated with few, if any, side effects. Acyclovir and valaciclovir (Fig. 1) are used in the treatment of mucosal, cutaneous and systemic HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections (including herpetic keratitis, herpetic encephalitis, genital herpes, neonatal herpes, and herpes labialis), and VZV infections (including varicella and herpes zoster). Acyclovir is administered orally at doses of 1 g (5 x 200mg) per day for genital herpes, up to 4 g (5 x 800mg) per day for herpes zoster or topically as a 3 ophthalmic cream for herpetic keratitis or 5 cream for herpes labialis or intravenously at 30mg kg (3 x 10mg kg) per day for herpetic encephalitis...

Chorioallantoic membrane CAM A

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) A severely disabling fatigue with self-reported impairments in concentration and short-term memory, sleep disturbances and musculoskeletal pain. Occurs worldwide. A number of infectious agents have been proposed as etiologic agents of CFS, including Human herpesviruses 4 (EBV), 5 (CMV) and 6 (HHV6) enteroviruses retroviruses and Borrelia burgdorferi. None has proved to be a unique causative agent, but it remains possible that such infections act as a trigger for the syndrome. Synonyms post-viral fatigue syndrome myalgic encephalitis (ME).

Clone 15c4 cells See Chang conjunctiva cells

C-myc oncogene The cellular gene, located on chromosome 8, encoding the MYC protein. The virally transduced oncogene v-myc was originally found in avian mye-locytomatosis virus MC29. MYC is a nuclear transcription factor. Amplification of c-myc expression is found in many tumors, and in the case of Burkitt's lymphoma, associated with Human herpesvirus 4, this gene amplification is linked to chromosomal translocation and consequent deregulation of c-myc. cobra herpesvirus Synonym for elapid her-pesvirus 1.

Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates

Cidofovir (Fig. 2) has been formally approved for the treatment of CMV retinitis in AIDS patients, where it is administered intravenously at a dose not exceeding 5 mg kg once weekly during the first two weeks (and every other week thereafter). Cidofovir is also used off label for the treatment of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections (i.e., cutaneous warts, anogenital warts, laryngeal and pharyngeal papilloma), polyomavirus i.e., progressive (i.e., multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) , adenovirus, herpesvirus, and poxvirus (i.e., molluscum contagiosum) infections, where it can be administered intravenously (at a dose of < 5mg kg once weekly or every other week) or topically as a 1 gel or cream (De Clercq and Holy 2005). Especially in immunosuppressed patients (i.e., transplant recipients), local treatment of HPV-associated lesions has often yielded spectacular results (Bonatti et al. 2007). To increase the oral bioavailability of adefovir and tenofovir, the prodrugs ade-fovir...

ColAn 57389 virus CA57389V A strain of

Include man-nose-binding protein which interacts with Influenza virus, herpes simplex virus, and Human immunodeficiency virus and can activate complement to cause virus neutralization. Collectins are composed of a collagen stalk and a globular head, usually present as trimers, and form a primitive antibody-like defense mechanism which targets carbohydrate structures on infectious pathogens.

Anaplastic Large Tcell Lymphoma

Cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma has been observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency, brought about both by HIV infection and therapeutic-induced immunosuppression 94-98 . In cases arising in HIV patients, an association with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection has been documented 99 .

Common cold virus See human rhinoviruses

Congenital infection Infection occurring before birth. May follow a number of viral infections and is sometimes lethal. May produce fetal abnormalities, e.g. Rubella virus and Human herpesvirus 5. Some viruses affect particular organs depending on the stage of fetal development at which infection occurs, while others which are non-cytocidal may infect every cell in the embryo and persist throughout adult life, e.g. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice.

Diseasebased classification schemes for viruses

Herpesviruses* (linear DNA) Viruses can also be classified by the nature of the diseases they cause, and a number of closely or distantly related viruses can cause diseases with similar features. For example, two herpesviruses, EBV and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), cause infectious mononucleosis, and the exact cause of a given clinical case cannot be fully determined without virological tests. Of course, completely unrelated viruses can cause similar diseases. Still, disease-based classification systems are of value in choosing potential candidates for the etiology of a disease. A general grouping of some viruses by similarities of the diseases caused or organ systems infected was presented in Table 3.1.

Outline of the virus replication cycle

Despite this type of variability, the process of capsid maturation and assembly is generally determined by the structural features of the virus in question. Thus, icosahedral bacterial viruses mature following steps that are quite similar to those characterized for herpesviruses. Again, helical plant, animal, and bacterial viruses all assemble in much the same way.

Cycloheximide 3[235dimethyl2oxocyclohexyl2hydroxyethylglutarimide A

Cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from epithelioma of carp. Produces specific CPE in cell cultures of a warm water aquarium fish, Lebistes retic-ulatus. Synonyms carppox herpesvirus epithe-lioma of carp virus epithelioma papillosum of carp virus fishpox virus. cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Synonyms goldfish herpesvirus hemato-poietic necrosis herpesvirus of goldfish. cytarabine hydrochloride (ara C) 1-beta,-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine hydrochlo-ride An antiviral and antileukemic agent which inhibits DNA synthesis. In the body the drug is converted to araCTP, when it is able to inhibit both DNA poly-merase and nucleoside reductase. Its antiviral spectrum resembles that of idoxuridine. Rapidly inactivated in vivo. Was used with some success in the treatment of herpes keratitis and severe generalized herpes infection, but now replaced by acyclovir as the drug of choice.

Cytomegalic inclusion disease CID

Diseases caused by cytomegalovirus infection are marked by characteristic large refractile inclusion bodies (known as 'owl eye' inclusions).These are found in patients suffering from classical congenital CMV infection, and also in AIDS patients suffering from CMV, a frequent opportunistic infection. Cytomegalovirus One of three genera in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae, containing three species, Human herpesvirus 5 (human cytomegalovirus), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 5 and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 8. Tentative species in the genus are aotine herpesvirus 1 and aotine her-pesvirus 3. The members of the genus are grouped on the basis of the nucleotide sequence similarity of their genome DNAs. cytomegalovirus group Synonym for Betaherpesvirinae.

Entry of enveloped viruses

The fusion interaction between the viral and plasma or vesicular membrane can be a simple one between one viral glycoprotein and one cellular receptor, or it can be a complex cascade of linked protein interactions. For example, with a herpesvirus such as HSV, five or six viral glycoproteins first bring the virus near the cell, and then allow entry, which requires interaction with a specific cellular surface receptor. The first interaction appears to be an association between viral glycoproteins and sulfated sugar molecules (polyglycans) like heparan sulfate, which is found attached to many surface proteins of the cell. Only then can the virion be brought close enough to the plasma membrane to allow interaction with the actual receptor.

Delgadito virus See Cao Delgadito virus

Delta herpesvirus Synonym for cerco-pithecine herpesvirus 7. 6-deoxyacyclovir An acyclic nucleoside analog that is absorbed orally and converted by xanthine oxidase to form acyclovir. Has been used to treat chronic hepatitis B infection as well as herpes zoster. deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohy-drolase (dUTPase) A herpesvirus-specific enzyme which is non-essential for growth of virus in vitro. Dependovirus A genus in the subfamily Parvovirinae, family Parvoviridae. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV-2). Mature virions contain either positive or negative single-stranded DNA, about 4.7 kb in size, and upon extraction the DNA readily forms double strands. Replication is dependent upon a helper virus, adenovirus or herpesvirus. In the absence of a helper virus, the AAV genome can be integrated into cellular DNA to establish a latent infection. Subsequent helper virus infection may activate the latent AAV. All six isolates of Adeno-associated virus share a common...

DNA exonuclease See deoxyribonuclease exonuclease

Triphosphates and a primer with a free 3'-hydroxyl group. The primer can be an uncompleted DNA strand, but is more usually a short RNA strand. Synthesis of at least one strand is discontinuous and yields a series of Okazaki fragments. Three types of DNA polymerase have been described in prokaryotes. DNA polymerase I (Kornberg enzyme) has a 5'-3' exonucle-ase activity as well as polymerase activity and is mainly involved in repair synthesis of DNA. DNA polymerase II has a 3'-5' nuclease activity but lacks the 5'-3' nucle-ase activity. DNA polymerase III has both 5'-3' and 3'-5' exonuclease activities and appears to be the true DNA replicating enzyme in Escherichia coli the role of DNA polymerase II is uncertain. In eukaryotic cells, four distinct species of DNA poly-merase have been described. (1) DNA polymerase alpha has a high molecular weight and contains associated DNA primase activity it is the major enzyme involved in DNA replication. (2) DNA polymerase beta is a low molecular...

Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis

AKC is a chronic inflammatory process of the eye associated with a familial history for atopy such as eczema and asthma primary care physicians should expect to see 25 of their elderly patients with eczema to also have some form of AKC. AKC can be seen in individuals as early as their late teens it commonly persists until the fourth and fifth decades of life. AKC is an eye disorder with disabling symptoms when it involves the cornea, it can lead to blindness. Ocular symptoms of AKC are similar to the cutaneous symptoms of eczema and include intense pruritus and edematous, coarse, and thickened eyelids. Severe AKC is associated with complications such as blepharoconjunctivitis, cataract, corneal disease, and ocular herpes simplex it is primarily associated in 40 of the older patients, with the peak incidence occurring in the 30- to 50-yr age group. The symptoms of AKC commonly include itching, burning, and tearing, which are much more severe than in AC or PAC and tend to be present...

Autophagy in Innate Viral Recognition Through TLRs

RNA, if not through compartmental separation as had been previously thought. TLR7 does not seem to distinguish viral or mammalian RNA based on studies using synthetic and purified nucleic acids (Diebold et al. 2006). Our study implies that there may be other ligands of TLR7 that are naturally produced during ssRNA virus infection, such as the replication intermediates, that serve as potent agonists for TLR7. In contrast to recognition of VSV or SeV, TLR7-dependent recognition of influenza virus and TLR9-dependent recognition of a dsDNA virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), have been shown to be unaffected by UV irradiation, heat inactivation and formaldehyde fixation (Asselin-Paturel et al. 2001 Diebold et al. 2004 Eloranta and Alm 1999 Krug et al. 2004 Lund et al. 2003). Thus, it appears that viral replication intermediates are required for the complete stimulation of TLR7 upon infection with ssRNA viruses that replicate within the cytosol however, further study will be required to...

Biological Functions of Intracellular Regulators of Apoptosis

However, Fas FasL interaction does not necessarily result in apoptosis, because downstream regulatory factors can suppress Fas FasL death signaling (M14). Recently, a new family of six viral inhibitors (V-FLIPs for FLICE-inhibitory proteins) has been described. They interfere with the apoptosis signal through death receptors and are present in several herpes viruses including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated human herpes virus-8 and tumorigenic human molluscipox virus (K11). These V-FLIPs contain two death-effector domains that interact with the adaptor protein FADD, thereby inhibiting the recruitment and activation of the protease FLICE by the CD95 death receptor (N1). Protection of virus-infected cells against death-receptor-induced apoptosis may contribute to the oncogenicity of several FLIP-encoding viruses.

Endoepidemic hemorrhagic fever virus

England rat cytomegalovirus A probable species in the genus Muromegalovirus. Two strains of rat cytomegalovirus have been studied in detail the England strain and the Maastricht strain, both first described in 1982. Because of profound genetic sequence differences, these now appear to be distinct species rather than strains.

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis EV

Epithelioma of carp virus Synonym for cyprinid herpesvirus 1. Synonym for cyprinid herpesvirus 1. Epstein-Barr virus Synonym for Human herpesvirus 4. Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) A species in the genus Varicellovirus, closely related to EHV-4. A natural infection confined to equines. A common cause of acute respiratory disease in horses during their first 2 years of life. Natural transmission probably by respiratory route. Usually silent in mares but abortion may occur, especially in months 8-10 of pregnancy. Should not be confused with equine infectious arteritis virus which can also cause abortion in mares. Experimental infection during the months 3-9 of gestation may result in encephalitis due to vasculitis. Genital vesicular exanthema or pustular vulvovaginitis may be produced. Experimentally, causes abortion in guinea pigs suckling hamsters infected i.p. develop hepatitis. Has been adapted to growth on the CAM, in the yolk sac and amnion. Replicates with CPE in fetal horse cell...

Equine encephalosis viruses 17 EEV17

Equine herpesvirus 1 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 1. equine herpesvirus 3 Synonym for equid herpesvirus 3. equine herpesvirus 4 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 4. equine herpesvirus 5 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 5. equine influenza virus A poor term because it has been used for three different viruses Equid herpesvirus 1, Equine arteritis virus and influenza virus A equine.

Applications and Variations of Isothermal RNA Amplifications

Initial studies using transcription-based ITA methods focused upon detection of HIV RNA as an important example of RNA targeting (Guatelli et al., 1990 Bush et al., 1992 van Gemen et al., 1993a 1993b Sherefa et al., 1998). Recently, it has been incorporated into a real-time format (de Baar et al., 2001), and the use of molecular beacons and other fluorescent detection systems are enabling development of high-throughput and quantitative assays (Arens, 1993 Romano et al., 1997 Kamisango et al., 1999 Greijer et al., 2001 Yates et al., 2001). Targeting RNA has also been used as an indicator of cell viability (Simpkins et al., 2000 Keer and Birch, 2003) and to assess antimicrobial treatment regimens where problems may be caused by the presence of nonviable organisms (Morre et al., 1998). Because RNA is relatively unstable compared with DNA, detection of RNA is abetter indicator of viability as in the case of cytomegalovirus infection (Amorim et al., 2001) and helps to facilitate...

Far East Russian encephalitis virus

Felid herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1) A species in the genus Varicellovirus. Cats which have recovered from infection with this virus may still carry it and infect kittens, in which it causes nasal discharge, lacrima-tion and fever. Virus replicates in the mucous membranes of the nose, larynx and trachea, also in the conjunctiva, and can infect the genital tract. In cats older than 6 months, the disease is mild or sub-clinical, though pregnant queens may abort. Causes similar clinical disease in wild felids such as cheetahs in captivity. Focal lesions are produced in cell cultures from cat kidney, lung and testis. There is no CPE in cultures of bovine, human or monkey cells. Synonyms feline herpesvirus 1 feline rhinotracheitis virus. felid herpesvirus 2 (FeHV-2) Probably a strain of Bovine herpesvirus 4 in the genus Rhadinovirus. A cell-associated her-pesvirus isolated during studies of feline urologic syndrome. Induced formation of syncytia, and nuclear inclusions which were found to contain...

Fetal rhesus kidney virus Synonym for

Field mouse herpesvirus Synonym for murid herpesvirus 5. fishpox virus Synonym for cyprinid herpesvirus 1. grass carp reovirus (Reoviridae) herpesvirus salmonis (Herpesviridae) Hirame rhabdovirus (Rhabdoviridae) Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) (Herpesviridae) Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (Rhabdoviridae) Oncorhynchus masou virus (Herpesviridae) fishpox virus (Herpesviridae) golden shiner reovirus (Reoviridae) grouper reovirus (Reoviridae) Lymphocystis disease virus (Iridoviridae) walleye herpesvirus (Herpesviridae) Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (Retroviridae) white sturgeon herpesvirus (Herpesviridae)

Making a Recombinant Adenovirus Containing a New Terminal Exon in the MLTU

The parent plasmid (also referred to as the recipient plasmid) we use for recombination is pAdCiG (Fig. 4), which contains the full Ad5 E1 E3-deleted vector genome and expresses a bicistronic, cytomegalovirus-driven CATiresGFP element in the E1 region. The MLTU contains a PacI BamHI-modified fiber 5 terminal exon. The plasmid backbone of pAdCiG contains a kanamycin-resis-tance cassette as well as the Col E1 origin of replication. The plasmid backbone can be released from the Ad sequences by SwaI digestion. We purchase electroporation-competent BJ5183 (Stratagene). Alternatively, a procedure for chemically competent transformation is also presented.

Fluorouracil See base analog

FoLu cells (CCL 168) A cell line derived from the normal lung tissue of an adult female grey fox. Susceptible to Vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex and Vaccinia viruses. Fomiversen An antiviral drug (phos-phorothioate 21-mer oligonucleotide) targeted to the cytomegalovirus IE2 gene. Used by intravitreal injection for treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients. foscarnet Trisodium phosphonoformate. A phosphonate analog with activity against herpes and Hepatitis B viruses. Approved for intravenous therapy of cytomegalovirus-associated retinitis in immunosuppressed patients. See trisodium phosphonoformate.

Genital Ulcer Diseases

Most sexually transmitted genital ulcers in the UK are caused by Herpes simplex virus (HPA, 2005). Treponema pallidum is another common cause. Dark-ground microscopy, serological testing for syphilis and Herpes simplex culture can be performed to aid diagnosis. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also available for both organisms. Other sexually transmitted infective causes such as lymphogranuloma venereum, Haemophilus ducreyi and donovanosis should be considered, and a good travel history of both the patient and their partners is helpful. Other non-infective causes of genital ulcer disease include Behcet's disease and Crohn's disease. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS Herpes simplex virus typically presents as multiple painful vesicles or pustules, which break down to form erosive ulcers. These are generally painful and may coalesce to form larger areas of painful ulceration. True primary episodes are generally more severe than subsequent episodes, and are often associated with systemic...

Symptoms And Signs

In pharyngitis and ARD, differential diagnoses are infections with Streptococcus pyogenes, mycoplasma, chlamydia (psittacosis), coxiella (Q-fever) and various respiratory viruses. An infection with S. pyogenes is usually more aggressive and involves primarily the tonsillar tissue. Pharyngoconjunc-tival fever often occurs in epidemic form and is usually easier to diagnose. In follicular conjunctivitis bacteria (Chlamydia trachomatis) should be considered. Epidemic haemorrhagic keratojunctivitis is usually caused by enterovirus 70, while unilateral keratitis without conjunctivitis suggests herpes simplex virus.

Direct intramyocardial injection

In a recent comparison with viral vectors (adenovirus, adeno-associ-ated virus, and herpes simplex virus), uncomplexed and complexed naked DNA proved inefficient for direct intramyocardial delivery (less than one positive cell per heart), whereas all viral vectors produced significant transgene expression up to 21 d (66). DIMI of Ad.VEGF to rat myocardium produced peak gene expression at 24-72 h that remained detectable for up to 3 wk (67). Similar transepicardial delivery of

UdR See fluorodeoxyuridine

Fusion of cells The formation of multi-nucleate giant cells known as poly-karyocytes or syncytia. Can be caused by a variety of agents including some viruses, notably Paramyxoviridae. There are two types of virus-induced fusion. (1) Fusion from without. Not dependent on virus replication or on the synthesis of new proteins. Occurs not more than 1-3 h after exposure to high multiplicities of most of the large enveloped RNA viruses or certain DNA viruses such as Human herpesviruses 1 and 2 and Vaccinia virus, even when they have been inactivated by UV light or P-propiolactone. May also be caused by viral hemolysin, since treatment which will destroy this enzyme activity without affecting viral infectivity will also prevent the cell-fusing action. (2) Fusion from within. Begins several hours after infection and depends on synthesis of viral proteins, especially the F protein of paramyx-oviruses. Production of new infectious virus is not necessary. Often most marked after infection at low...

Transductionally Targeted Ad Vectors for Clinical Gene Therapy Applications

As discussed above, the poor efficiency of Ad-mediated gene transfer in several human gene therapy trials has been correlated with a low level of expression of CAR by the target cells. Strategies to accomplish efficient cell-specific gene transfer by Ad vectors in vivo merely by exploiting physical methods to confine vector administration to isolated body compartments have proven inadequate. For example, locally administered Ad vectors carrying the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene have been shown to disseminate, probably as a result of leakage into the bloodstream, resulting in a high level of liver-associated toxicity 119 . Substantial hepatic toxicity related to the absence of tumor cell-specific targeting has also been demonstrated in Ad-mediated transfer of the HSV-TK gene in an ascites model of human breast cancer 120 . Thus, targeted Ad vectors capable of efficient and cell-specific CAR-independent gene transfer are required for clinical gene therapy...

Contrast of These Techniques

The difference is that many synthetic oligonucleotides (probes) are used in bDNA for signal amplification and two anti-RNA DNA hybrid antibodies are used in HC2 for signal amplification. The bDNA technology is mainly used for quantitative analysis of viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The HC2 technology is mainly used for qualitative detection of viral or bacterial infection, with the exception of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV).

Great Saltee Island virus GSIV A

Green iguana herpesvirus Synonym for iguanid herpesvirus 1. green lizard herpesvirus Synonym for lac-ertid herpesvirus 1. green sea turtle herpesvirus Synonym for chelonid herpesvirus 1. green turtle herpesvirus (GTHV) green turtle herpesvirus (GTHV) A virus associated with an emerging neoplastic disease of turtles in Florida and Hawaii. Fibropapillomatosis is a debilitating, frequently fatal disease of marine green turtles, Chelonia mydas, characterized by the presence of epithelial fibropapillomas and internal fibromas containing her-pesvirus-like DNA sequences. Although a virus has not so far been isolated, DNA sequence analysis of fibropapilloma tissue suggests that there may be at least three closely related herpesviruses associated with the disease, depending on the species and geographical location. In addition to green turtles, loggerhead turtles and olive ridley turtles may also be infected. When cell-free filtrates of cultured cells derived from the fibropapilloma tissue...

Grey patch disease of turtles virus

Synonym for chelonid herpesvirus 1. ground squirrel cytomegalovirus Synonym for sciurid herpesvirus 1. ground squirrel herpesvirus Synonym for sciurid herpesvirus 2. gruid herpesvirus 1 (GrHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae, isolated from a crane in Germany.

Complications Infection

Viral infections are a particularly troublesome complicating factor in some patients with AD. Patients have an unusual susceptibility to certain types of viral infections. The most common organisms found are those of herpes simplex (eczema herpeticum), verruca vulgaris (common warts), molluscum contagiosum and vaccinia (eczema vaccinatum). Kaposi's varicelliform eruption is a particularly severe, explosive infection caused by herpes simplex or vaccinia infection. Viral lesions are typically vesiculopustular in appearance and occur in clusters on both affected and unaffected skin, but with a predilection toward affected skin. The lesions of molluscum contagiosum are papular, centrally umbilicated lesions surrounded by a pale halo. All viral lesions can be seen on any portion of the body. Infection may be localized or result in systemic toxicity (i.e., herpes and vaccinia). Appropriate antiviral therapy may be indicated on a long-term basis to combat these infections, some of which can...

Virusmediated cytopathology changes in the physical appearance of cells

Some basic types of virus-induced changes to the host cell (cytopathology) result in changes that are readily observable by eye or with the aid of a low-power microscope. All cytopathology requires some specific interaction between viral gene products and the cell. Even the cell lysis induced by poliovirus or bacteriophage infection, in which the cell explodes, is the result of very specific modifications to the cell's plasma membrane and lysosomes induced by specific poliovirus gene products. Less dramatic, but still clearly observable changes to the cell include the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (which is diagnostic for poxvirus infections), generation of nuclear inclusion bodies seen with herpesvirus infections, and alterations in chromosomes.

Infections And Their Management

Innocuous viruses increasingly recognised. For example, rhinoviruses, a cause of the common cold, are now known to be associated with severe lower respiratory disease in the immunocompromised and exacerbations of asthma (Gern and Busse, 1999 Greenberg, 2003). Similarly, though it is true that many viral infections remain untreatable, effective treatment is now available for several serious conditions, such as aciclovir in herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis, ribavirin for Lassa fever, and combination antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antivirals are generally targeted at a single virus or closely related viruses, rather than a large group of viruses. Amantadine acts well against influenza A virus but has no activity against influenza B virus, and aciclovir is useful against HSV and varicella zoster virus (VZV), but is not effective as treatment for cytomegalovirus (CMV) or Epstein-Barr virus infections, despite these being members of the herpes virus...