Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course

Human Anatomy And Physiology Premium Course

This is honestly the most complete ultimate home study course in human anatomy and physiology course you'll ever find on the Internet. With over 3000+ pages coupled with detailed illustrations and diagrams, it blows other similar courses away. Take a fascinating journey inside the mysterious hidden wonders of the body via pages of structural information and beautifully detailed anatomical images to find answers to questions. All structures and musculature are modeled and labeled including nerves, deep and superficial muscles, blood supply, skeletal structures and unique features for each individual body parts. Each topic is linked via references with test quizzes and this provides the best way to learn and understand human anatomy and the body.The Ultimate Home Study Course On Human Anatomy & Physiology: Cover Hundreds of Medical Topics Spanning Over 3000+ Pages. Award Winning Course Previously Only Sold To Medical Professionals. Each Lessons Ends With Key Facts, Revision Tests + Solutions To Reinforce Learning and Pinpoint Weaknesses. Detailed Illustrations With Labels To Aid Your Comprehension And Boost Your Retention. Idiot Proof Coverage Of Every Region & System In The Body and Identify Specific Muscle Groups and Their Functions. Simple Explanations of Cell Structures & Body Tissue and Review Key Anatomy & Physiology Concepts. Perfect For Medical Practitioners, Students, Educators, Anatomists, Sports Trainers, Injury Law Attorneys, Chiropractors, Therapists, Nurses and Paramedics. No Prior Medical Training Is Required. More here...

Human Anatomy And Physiology Premium Course Summary


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Review of Key Concepts

Human anatomy, or structure, is studied at gross and microscopic (histological) levels. 3. Human physiology, or function, is studied by experimental methods, and often by comparison to other species. 3. Evolutionary medicine is the analysis of human form, function, and disease in light of the evolutionary history of the human body.

Anatomy Begins In The Hidden World Of Atoms

Tiny particles make up the Hidden World of Atoms. An atom (AH-tum) is the simplest form of a chemical element - a primary type of matter. The four most common elements (atoms) found in the human body are carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N). These four types of atoms have the shape of round particles or spheres, resembling tiny particles of dirt. Like pieces of dirt swept under the skin carpet (where no one can see them), the Hidden World of Atoms provides a broad, deep foundation upon which the entire Body House is built. To fully understand human anatomy, therefore, we must begin at the Chemical Level of body organization.

The Prospects for Microbial Genomics Providing Novel Exploitable Antibacterial Targets

Introduction - Antibiotics have been a major triumph in applied medical science since their introduction in the last century. The rapid improvement of patients afflicted with heretofore deadly infections led to these compounds being termed miracle drugs . Unfortunately, it has become increasingly clear that bacterial resistance to these compounds is rising at a rate that threatens to undermine their future utility (1,2). In this sense, antimicrobials stand in a somewhat unique position among drug classes. Compounds that affect human physiology, such as lipid-lowering agents, ACE inhibitors, and anti-inflammatory agents, do not engender resistance to their pharmacological targets in the human population. However, in the case of infectious agents we are dealing with rapidly evolving populations of organisms placed under selective pressure by antibiotics (3). Exacerbating the situation is the fact that many of the existing antimicrobial classes are derived from natural products, and...

Clinical Box 21 Graft Versus Host Disease

It occurs at the cell membrane to bring extracellular material into the cell. (a) Phagocytosis, or cellular eating, of an extracellular particle (b) Pinocytosis, or cellular sipping, of extracellular fluid with small solutes included. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.) Figure 2.3 Endocytosis. It occurs at the cell membrane to bring extracellular material into the cell. (a) Phagocytosis, or cellular eating, of an extracellular particle (b) Pinocytosis, or cellular sipping, of extracellular fluid with small solutes included. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.) Figure 2.4 Exocytosis. It can be described as a four-step process. A membrane-enclosed intracellular vesicle moves to the cell membrane (step 1). The two membranes fuse (step 2), allowing the contents of the vesicle to be expelled from the cell (step 3). The...

A van den Ende Y Y van der Hoek J J P Kastelein M L Koschinsky1 C Labeur M Rosseneu

After its identification by Berg in 1963, lipoprotein (a), Lp(a), has proven to be one of the most intriguing plasma lipoproteins. It may even prove to be one of the most intriguing substances in human physiology and pathology that has been identified in the past two decades. Despite the overwhelming scientific attention this particle has received recently, relatively little is known about its role in human health and disease. Attention is focused on the strong and independent relationship between the plasma concentrations of Lp(a) and the incidence of atherosclerotic vascular disease. In fact, Lp(a) levels might be powerful indicators of vascular disease, although the protein's role in atherogenesis remains to be established.

Inherited Prion Diseases

Now mouse transgenesis is used routinely to create models for human genetic diseases and for other applications including the study of the temporal regulation of gene expression. Mice were chosen for these studies because they are manipulated easily in experiments, breed readily, can be maintained in an animal facility, are exceptionally well known genetically, and because, for many purposes, mouse and human anatomy and physiology closely resemble each other. However, despite the importance of mouse models for human diseases, a mouse is, after all, not a human.

Biosimulation Dynamic Modeling of Biological Systems

Introduction - The completion of the human genome project and the rapid development of proteomics promises to provide the complete list of ingredients for human life. But genomic and proteomic information alone cannot provide an understanding of human physiology. As an analogy, the parts list for an automobile does not elucidate its integrated function, much less its performance characteristics. Rather, in order to understand biological function it is necessary to unravel the complex interactions between the parts and understand their qualitative and quantitative dynamics as an integrated whole. The field of biosimulation directly addresses this challenge. In a recent review, Ho assessed the applicability of biosimulation to each phase of the pharmaceutical research and development process (1). In the discovery and preclinical phases, biosimulation can be applied to finding and validating novel targets, pathways, and biomarkers, as well as assessing whether or not these discoveries...

The Importance of External Anatomy

Lateral Aspect Hand

In the study of human anatomy, it is easy to become so preoccupied with internal structure that we forget the importance of what we can see and feel externally. Yet external anatomy and appearance are major concerns in giving a physical examination and in many aspects of patient care. A knowledge of the body's surface landmarks is essential to one's competence in physical therapy, cardiopul-monary resuscitation, surgery, making X rays and electrocardiograms, giving injections, drawing blood, listening to heart and respiratory sounds, measuring the pulse and blood pressure, and finding pressure points to stop arterial bleeding, among other procedures. A misguided attempt to perform some of these procedures while disregarding or misunderstanding external anatomy can be very harmful and even fatal to a patient.

The Hierarchy of Complexity

Digestive System Atlas Physiology Book

Consider for the moment an analogy to human structure The English language, like the human body, is very complex, yet an endless array of ideas can be conveyed with a limited number of words. All words in English are, in turn, The organism is a single, complete individual. An organ system is a group of organs with a unique collective function, such as circulation, respiration, or digestion. The human body has 11 organ systems, illustrated in atlas A immediately following this chapter the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digestive, and The theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components is called reductionism. First espoused by Aristotle, this has proven to be a highly productive approach indeed, it is essential to scientific thinking. Yet the reduc-tionistic view is not the last word in understanding human life. Just as it would be very difficult to...

Review of Major Themes

Magnetic Resonanc Imaging Scizohprenia

To close this chapter, let's distill a few major points from it. These themes can provide you with a sense of perspective that will make the rest of the book more meaningful and not just a collection of disconnected facts. These are some key unifying principles behind all study of human anatomy and physiology Homeostasis. The purpose of most normal physiology is to maintain stable conditions within the body. Human physiology is essentially a group of mechanisms that produce stable internal conditions favorable to cellular function. Any serious departure from these conditions can be harmful or fatal to cells. Evolution. The human body is a product of evolution. Like every other living species, we have been molded by millions of years of natural selection to function in a changing environment. Many aspects of human anatomy and physiology reflect our ancestors' adaptations to their environment. Human form and function cannot be fully understood except in light of our evolutionary...

The History of Anatomical Terminology

About 90 of today's medical terms are formed from just 1,200 Greek and Latin roots. Scientific investigation began in ancient Greece and soon spread to Rome. The Greeks and Romans coined many of the words still used in human anatomy today uterus, prostate, cerebellum, diaphragm, sacrum, amnion, and others. In the Renaissance, the fast pace of anatomical discovery required a

Imaging Biomarkers for Vulnerable Plaques

PET is the study of human physiology by electronic detection of positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The simultaneous detection of these photons (two high-energy photons emitted in opposite directions) is the basis of PET imaging 49 . PET provides a measure of metabolic and functional activity of living tissue based on the retention of positron-emitting tracers. Current approaches in PET imaging for atherosclerosis use 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), as a radiolabeled tracer, which is taken up by metabolically active cells and has been frequently used in cancer diagnosis. Two studies in particular support the use of this ligand for atherosclerosis as a noninvasive measure of carotid plaque inflammation. Rudd et al. reported a greater uptake in symptomatic carotids versus asymptomatic vessels and that this uptake was located near macrophages in endarterectomy samples 50 . In another report, FDG uptake was shown to correlate with the CD68 (macrophage) count in histological examination...

Anatomy The Study of Form

Cadavers Gross Antaomy

The simplest way to study human anatomy is the observation of surface structure, for example in performing a physical examination or making a clinical diagnosis from surface appearance. But a deeper understanding of the body depends on dissection the careful cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships. Both anatomy1 and dissection2 literally mean cutting apart dissecting used to be called anatomizing. The dissection of a dead human body, or cadaver,3 is an essential part of the training of many health science students (fig. 1.1). Many insights into human structure are obtained from comparative anatomy the study of more than one species in order to learn generalizations and evolutionary trends. Students of anatomy often begin by dissecting other animals with which we share a common ancestry and many structural similarities.

Physiological Variation

Earlier we considered the clinical importance of variations in human anatomy, but physiology is even more variable. Physiological variables differ with sex, age, weight, diet, degree of physical activity, and environment, among other things. Failure to consider such variation leads to medical mistakes such as overmedication of the elderly or medicating women on the basis of research that was done on men. If an introductory textbook states a typical human heart rate, blood pressure, red blood cell count, or body temperature, it is generally assumed that such values are for a healthy young adult unless otherwise stated. A point of reference for such general values is the reference man and reference woman. The reference man is defined as a healthy male 22 years old, weighing 70 kg (154 lb), living at a mean ambient (surrounding) temperature of 20 C, engaging in light physical activity, and consuming 2,800 kilocalories (kcal) per day. The reference woman is the same except for a weight of...

Nonmembrane Bound Organelles 231 Ribosomes

Stereocilia Inner Ear

The three types of cytoskeletal filaments are microfilaments with a diameter of around 7 nm, microtubules which may exceed 25 nm, and intermediate filaments with an intermediary size. The filaments have in common that they are all composed of repeating protein subunits. The cytoskeleton provides for the form of the cell, for transport within the cell, and, in some cells, for the motility of the cell. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.) Figure 2.7 Cytoskeleton. The three types of cytoskeletal filaments are microfilaments with a diameter of around 7 nm, microtubules which may exceed 25 nm, and intermediate filaments with an intermediary size. The filaments have in common that they are all composed of repeating protein subunits. The cytoskeleton provides for the form of the cell, for transport within the cell, and, in some cells, for the motility of the cell. (Reproduced with permission...

Adiposity vs Bone Formation

Aging of the human skeleton is characterized by decreased bone formation and bone mass. The decrease in bone volume associated with age-related osteopenia is accompanied by an increase in marrow adipose tissue as determined by histomorphometry (38,39). Adipogenesis is also observed in almost all conditions that lead to osteoporosis (40,41), such as ovariectomy (42), limb immobilization (43), alcoholism (44), and excessive treatment with glucocorticoids (45). Conversely, adipogenesis is inhibited in conditions with increased bone formation (46).

Management Of Back And Leg Pain In Ancient Medicine

Avicenna (980-1037 ad), a Persian physician and philosopher who was born in Bokhara, also wrote extensively on human anatomy and the peripheral nerves. However, his writings make no clear reference to sciatic pain. His text Canon of Medicine formed the cornerstone of medical practice for ensuing centuries. Avicenna condemned the reliance on mysticism and astrology in medicine (4). His writings were translated into Latin and included in the medical curriculum of European universities. Avicenna's principal method of treating spinal disorders by traction and manipulation remains an accepted practice in many centers at present (Fig. 2), (5,6). A calligraphy (Fig.3), dating

Carotid Artery Occlusion

Unilateral carotid artery occlusion in most animals does not lead to ischemic changes unless combined with severe hypotension (19) or asphyxia (20). The same procedure, however, leads to even fatal strokes in gerbils, as the gerbil lacks a functioning Circle of Willis (21,22) and, therefore, gerbil cerebrovascular anatomy is different from human anatomy. Furthermore, the gerbil focal brain ischemia models present several other disadvantages (i) not all animals develop an infarction (22), (ii) many animals with an infarction develop seizures (23 ), ( iii) the body temperature decreases too easily, and (iv) blood sampling is technically extremely difficult because of the small size (50-80 g) of adult gerbils.

Clinical Phenotypes in Depression and Molecular Levels

Depression is a physical and psychological disorder that affects every aspect of human physiology. Stewart and Atlas have discussed the chaos between depression and metabolic syndrome 71 . As we know, some biological markers in cardiovascular disease are also used in the study of renal disease and diabetes and could similarly be applied to the study of major depression. As discussed above, these markers may be especially relevant to those involved in lipid metabolism. in addition the influence of antipsychotics and antidepressants on the human body should be considered 71 . identifying the important links between physical illness, depression, and biological markers will be very important in the future, as many diseases have overlapping pathophysiology aspects (i.e., information obtained from one disease can potentially be applied to other diseases). Perhaps better methods will be developed to help resolve these difficult problems 156 . However, the exact relationships between lipid...

Characteristics Used for Naming Bones

Dense bone tissue and its Haversian systems or osteons forms a structural mainstay of practically all of the bones in the human skeleton. But things get a lot more complicated when we try to generalize about the gross anatomy of the wide variety of individual bone organs. We now describe the bone-naming characteristics used for individual bones in the skeleton, and then provide one or two specific ''representative'' examples

RDM in Medicine

2.4.1 RP-generated anatomical models Stereolithographic anatomical modeling has been used in clinical practice in some form since the early 1990s. In basic terms, the process uses computed tomography (CT) images and computer-assisted machinery to produce physical models of the bone structure of a particular by processes that create a physical object from computerized data using an additive, layer-based technique. The technology has evolved to encompass a family of manufacturing techniques including selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling (FDM), 3D printing (3DP), laminated object manufacturing (LOM), multiJet modeling (MJM) and many others. Specialized software interfaces are required to take the medical imaging data typically used for anatomical modeling (i.e. CT or MRI) and convert it into the files needed to guide the RP apparatus. Physical anatomical models (biomodels) produced from medical imaging data have been used more and more frequently over the last few...


This chapter discusses a variety of medical imaging scan procedures and the data processing with medical imaging process software. Processing medical scan images and integrating the layered information into a 3D structure can generate accurate virtual anatomical models. The models can be converted into physical realities using rapid prototyping. The resulting models are particularly useful for communications, visualization and simulation, prior to fabrication of prostheses and many other applications. The integration of RE and RP provides fast reconstruction of layered RP models from cloud data with shape error control. In surgical procedures, these models can provide stereotactic feedback, practice simulators, procedure guides (templates), models against which to measure progress and a host of other uses. While the overall dimensional precision of the models is quite high, some technical issues affecting accuracy have been identified, and these are being addressed.

Future Directions

Second, the full utilization of the kallikrein gene family in various aspects of human physiology and pathobiology will necessitate the delineation of their physiological functions. Future investigations should include the examination of their enzymatic specificity and their regulation by specific or nonspecific tissue or circulating inhibitors. We are currently using synthetic peptide substrates, combinatorial substrate libraries, macromolecular protein substrates, and phage display technology to delineate the physiological function of these enzymes.

Chapter Summary

This chapter has surveyed some of the published vessel segmentation and tracing algorithms in the specific context of retinal fundus images. While many of the models and algorithms are influenced by related work in other areas of human anatomy, such as cardiac and brain images 110 , and dye-injected neuron images 2 , the techniques described in this chapter have been developed specifically in the retinal image context. We have attempted to describe some of the considerations of the many models and algorithms in use, in the context of the desired applications.

Atomic Structure

Potassium Atom Model

Table 2.1 Elements of the Human Body Table 2.1 Elements of the Human Body Electrons swarm about the nucleus in concentric regions called electron shells (energy levels). The more energy an electron has, the farther away from the nucleus its orbit lies. Each shell holds a limited number of electrons (see fig. 2.1). The one closest to the nucleus holds a maximum of 2 electrons, the second one holds a maximum of 8, and the third holds a maximum of 18. The outermost shell never holds more than 8 electrons, but a shell can acquire more electrons after another one, farther out, begins to fill. Thus, the third shell will hold 18 electrons only in atoms with four or more shells. The elements known to date have up to seven electron shells, but those ordinarily involved in human physiology do not exceed four.

Directional Terms

Anatomy Directional Terms

Table A.1 Directional Terms in Human Anatomy Because of the bipedal, upright stance of humans, some directional terms have different meanings for humans than they do for other animals. Anterior, for example, denotes the region of the body that leads the way in normal locomotion. For a four-legged animal such as a cat, this is the head end of the body for a human, however, it is the area of the chest and abdomen. Thus, anterior has the same meaning as ventral for a human but not for a cat. Posterior denotes the region of the body that comes last in normal locomotion the tail end of a cat but the dorsal side (back) of a human. These differences must be kept in mind when dissecting other animals for comparison to human anatomy.

Cell Membrane

Figure 2.1 Typical animal cell showing characteristic organelles and cellular inclusions. The arrangement of the intracellular features and the shape of the cell vary from cell to cell. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.) Figure 2.1 Typical animal cell showing characteristic organelles and cellular inclusions. The arrangement of the intracellular features and the shape of the cell vary from cell to cell. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.) Figure 2.2 Cell membrane. Membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins. Proteins include embedded, or integral proteins, as well as peripheral proteins on a surface of the membrane. Membrane proteins serve a variety of purposes including cell communication and identification. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New...

Parts of the Brain

Ventricles Neuroantomy

Figure 14.6 Coronal section through the anterior portion of the cerebrum of the human brain showing some of the elements of the basal ganglia and limbic system. Adapted from Carola, R., J. P. Harley, and C. R. Noback. 1992. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. Figure 14.7 Spatial relationship among components of the basal ganglia (stippled), limbic system (solid), and thalamus (cross-hatched) within the cerebrum of the human brain. The front of the brain is at the right. Adapted from Carola, R., J. P. Harley, and C. R. Noback. 1992. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Ancient Anatomy

Hippocrates and his contemporaries knew remarkably little about human anatomy, the structure of the bones aside. They made no systematic distinction between arteries and veins. They could not distinguish nerves and tendons. They did not understand that muscles contract, and they very rarely used the word for 'muscles', normally speaking of 'flesh'. This may seem surprising, as the sculptors of the fifth century bc portray heavily muscled bodies, and Greek athletes must have worked endlessly to develop their muscles. But in the language of the fifth century what was admirable about an athlete's body was that it was (as modern translations have it) 'articulated' or 'jointed'. A better translation might be to say that fifth-century Greeks admired 'definition', but they had no idea that muscles are required for definition. The contemporaries of Hippocrates not only lacked the idea of 'muscles', they also had no word for the stomach. They thought the womb wandered around the female body,...

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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