Bacille Calmette Guerin

Live attenuated vaccines have reduced the incidence, and even eliminated, many important bacterial and viral diseases. The original BCG was derived between 1908 and 1921 by 230 in vitro passages of anM. bovis strain. This attenuated BCG was found to be nonpathogenic in guinea pigs, yet sufficiently immunogenic to protect against a challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis (48,49). In the preantibiotic era, the promise of an effective vaccine against TB made BCG popular and, starting in 1923,...

DNA Microarray Analysis of Bacterial Pathogens

A DNA microarray is a high-density array of nucleic acid targets immobilized on a glass slide or a silicon chip. The nucleic acids are either denatured complementary DNA or genomic products amplified by PCR for spotted DNA arrays. For oligonucleotides arrays, oligonucleotides complementary to specific gene sequences are generally synthesized in situ. DNA microarray was first used in parallel detection and the analysis of the expression patterns of thousands of genes in plant tissues (7) and...