BAmyloid Precursor Protein and Intraneuronal Amyloid b in Autism

Sokol et al. (2006) detected signs of overexpression of APP in about 40 of autistic subjects. The levels of secreted APP in plasma in children with severe autistic behavior and aggression were two or more times the levels in children without autism, and up to fourfold more than in children with mild autism. The trend observed in autistic children, with higher levels of secreted P-APP and nonamyloidogenic secreted P-APP, and lower levels of AP 1-40 compared to controls, suggests an increased...

Lipofuscin in Autism

Lopez-Hurtado and Prieto (2008) revealed a significant increase in the number of lipofuscin-containing cells in the brain of 7- to 14-year-old autistic subjects (by 69 in area 22, 149 in area 39, and 45 in area 44). The increase in the number of lipofuscin-containing cells was paralleled by neuronal loss and glial proliferation. Lipofuscin accumulation is a component of aging (Brunk and Terman 2002a,b Brunk et al., 1992 Szweda et al., 2003), the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's...

I63Social Attachment The Role of the Hypothalamus in Behavioral Deficits

Experimental studies revealed that the hypothalamic nucleus paraventricularis (NPV) and the nucleus supraopticus (NSO), producing oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VAS), regulate emotional responses, social attachment, cognitive functions, sleep, and appetite (Barden, 2004 Ehlert et al., 2001 Manaye et al., 2005). OT and VAS are relayed from the human brain into the bloodstream via the posterior pituitary. The presence of receptors for both peptides throughout the forebrain, limbic system,...

Preface

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of behaviorally defined neuro-developmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interaction impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication and restricted, stereotyped patterns of behaviors and interests. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued an autism alarm, with 1 in 150 children estimated to be affected by ASD. Epidemiological studies suggest that more than 1.5 million people in the United States are affected...