Adiponectin Deficiency and Cardiovascular Diseases

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Adiponectin is inversely correlated with a panel of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, heart rate, and total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and is positively related to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (80,81). Hypoadiponectinemia has been shown to be an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, regardless of insulin resistance (82,83). In addition, the association of hypoadiponectinemia with coronary heart disease (84), ischemic cerebrovascular disease (85), and coronary artery calcification (86) was also reported to be independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension.

A recent report by Kumada et al. showed that the prevalence of coronary artery disease in male subjects with hypoadiponectinemia (<4 pg/mL) was 2.05-fold higher than those with adiponectin concentrations of more than 7.0 pg/mL, after adjustment for classical cardiovascular risk factors (87). In a large nested case-control study, Pischon et al. showed that high plasma levels of adiponectin are associated with a significantly decreased risk of myocardiac infarction over a follow-up period of 6 yr among 18,225 male participants without previous history of cardiovascular disease (88). This association was independent of hypertension, diabetes, or inflammation, and was only partly explained by changes in lipid profiles. Taken together, these data suggest a protective effect of adiponectin against cardiovascular disease in human subjects.

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