The association between overweight/obesity and CVD risk has been known for many years with evidence from several large cohort studies (74-76). After 44 yr of follow-up of the Framingham Heart Study, Wilson et al. (77) showed that CVD risk (including angina, myocardial infarction, CHD, or stroke) was higher among overweight men (RR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07-1.44), obese men (RR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.12-1.69), and obese women (RR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.14-1.68) after adjustment for age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes. During a 14-yr follow-up of 1 million adults in the United States, it was found that as BMI increased there was an increase in the risk of death from all causes, CVD, cancer, or other diseases for both men and women in all age groups (78). These findings confirmed the previous report of the Nurses' Health Study (79). In the Nurses' Health Study, weight gain of 5 to 8 kg increased CHD risk (nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death) by 25%, and weight gain of > 20 kg increased risk more than 2.5 times in comparison with women whose weight was stable within a range of 5 kg (56). In British men, an increase of 1 BMI unit was associated with a 10% increase in the rate of coronary events (80).
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