Liver Cancer

Seven studies that have examined obesity and liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) found excess relative risk in both men and women in the range of 1.5 to 4.0 (3,34,95,96,132,155,158); however, two studies did not find any suggestion of an increased risk (36,131). Taken together, these studies suggest that obesity increases the risk of liver cancer, but the magnitude of the observed relative risk from existing studies is not consistent.

Obesity, and especially visceral adiposity, is strongly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a chronic liver disease that occurs in nondrinkers but that is histologically similar to alcohol-induced liver disease (159). NAFLD is an emerging clinical problem among obese patients and is now recognized as the most common cause of abnormal liver tests (160). Disorders of glucose regulation are significantly associated with NAFLD, indicating that insulin resistance is the link between NAFLD and metabolic diseases (160). NAFLD is characterized by a spectrum of liver tissue changes ranging from accumulation of fat in the liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and HCC at the most extreme end of the spectrum. Progression to NASH appears to represent the turning point from a seemingly nonprogressive condition to fibrosis, necrosis, and inflammation, and multiple cellular adaptations to the resulting oxidative stress (159). Visceral adiposity likely contributes to the risk of HCC by promoting NAFLD and NASH.

Gaining Weight 101

Gaining Weight 101

Find out why long exhausting workouts may do more harm than good. Most of the body-building workout and diet regimens out there are designed for the guys that gain muscle and fat easily. They focus on eating less and working out more in order to cut the excess fat from their bodies while adding needed muscle tone.

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