Home Treatment of Keratosis Pilaris
There may be some overlap between solitary T-cell pseu-dolymphoma and so-called lichenoid keratosis (see below). Lichenoid (lymphomatoid) keratosis is a benign epithelial neoplasm, related in some cases to seborrhoeic keratosis and lentigo actinica (Fig. 20.10) 39,40 . Patients are elderly adults with small scaly plaques located usually on the trunk. The histopathological features with dense band-like inflammatory lymphoid infiltrates and often epidermotropism of lymphocytes may be indistinguishable from those of mycosis fungoides (Fig. 20.11) 41 . Moreover, clonality of T lymphocytes can sometimes be found in these lesions. Accurate clinicopathological correlation is crucial to establish a correct diagnosis. Differentiation of lichenoid (lymphomatoid) keratosis from solitary T-cell pseudolymphoma may be impossible in cases that do not show clear-cut features of an epithelial neoplasm, and the two conditions may be strictly related (see above). Fig. 20.10 Lichenoid (lymphomatoid)...
Each participant was asked questions about the various symptoms, socioeconomic status, the dietary habits, addiction, past history of major illness, and history of parasitic infestation. A thorough clinical examination of each participant was carried out taking special care to detect skin pigmentation and keratosis, and enlargement of the liver. Specific symptoms like weakness, abdominal pain or nausea (suggesting affection of the alimentary system), tingling and numbness (paresthesia, suggestive of nervous system disorder) were also recorded.
In addition, kallikrein expression may also be involved in the pathogenesis of several skin diseases. In psoriasis, an inflammatory skin disease, various kallikrein mRNAs were shown to be up-regulated in the upper epidermis 204 and associated with the conversion of the inactive hK7 precursor to active hK7 in the psoriatic lesion 189 . In ichthyoses and squamoprolifera-tive disorders, hK7 expression was found to be low 208 . Transgenic mice overexpressing hK7 showed increased epidermal thickness, hyperkera-tosis, and a dermal inflammation with pruritus 209 and expression of MHC II antigen 210 . These data indicated that hK7 may lead to skin changes that contribute to development of inflammatory skin diseases 210 . hK8-deficient mice showed a prolonged recovery of ultraviolet B-irradiated skin, indicating that hK8 might be involved in the process of differentiation 211 . Psoriasis vulgaris, seborrheic keratosis, lichen planus, and squamous cell carcinoma also display a high density of...
There is no doubt that sebum plays an important etiological role in acne (99,168170). Patients with acne secrete more sebum than unaffected individuals and sebo-suppressive treatments alleviate acne the greater the inhibition the more profound the clinical response. In addition to elevated sebum excretion, it is well-established that acne is associated histologically and clinically with hypercornification of the duct epithelium (7,38,171). Ductal hypercornification results initially in the formation of microcomedones and eventually comedones, a process termed comedo-genesis. On the basis of a detailed histological study Kligman (7) concluded that comedogenesis began in the infrainfundibulum and was closely followed by hyper-keratosis of the sebaceous duct. This is now generally accepted to a reasonable description of what is likely to happen.
Various disorders affect pilosebaceous units, although these diseases are rarely life threatening. Three types of skin cysts exist epidermoid cysts result from squamous metaplasia of a damaged sebaceous gland, while trichilemmal cysts and steatocys-toma are both genetically determined structural aberrations of the pilosebaceous duct. Accumulation of material in the follicular lumen results in distension of the follicle, leading to the formation of noninflamed lesions that are typical of acne, which is the most common follicular disease. In terminal follicles, plugging of the pilosebaceous duct may occur and result in keratosis pilaris. Inflammation around follicles is often seen at the skin surface, for example in folliculitis or acne. In folliculitis, there is extensive colonization of the follicular lumen by microflora.
Pityriasis alba and keratosis pilaris are two benign skin conditions that are commonly seen in patients with AD. Pityriasis alba is characterized by patchy areas of depigmen-tation of the skin, primarily occurring on the face and extensor surfaces of the extremities. Keratosis pilaris is a follicular hyperkeratosis characterized by fine papular lesions sur-
Some recent evidences have suggested that certain genotoxic effects of arsenic may be mediated by ROS (Lee and Ho, 1995). In the endemic areas of Inner Mongolia, we have found that 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), one of the widely accepted sensitive markers of oxidative DNA damage, was excreted in the urine of arsenic exposed people. This is in accordance with the study by Matsui et al. (1999) which demonstrated that 8-OH-dG was significantly higher in people with arsenic-related skin neoplasms and arsenic keratosis. Our further analysis showed that of all the subjects examined, there were positive correlations of urine 8-OH-dG levels with total arsenic (tAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMeAs) levels in whole blood, respectively. What is more, increased urine 8-OH-dG levels correlated positively with the ratios of (MMeAs + DMeAs) iAs in whole blood and negatively with the ratios of iAs (MMeAs + DMeAs) in urine (MmeAs is monomethylarsenic and iAs is inorganic arsenic). 8-OH-dG is...
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