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470 orchitis Inflammation of one or both testicles.

Glossary orgasm Intensely pleasurable sensations caused by involuntary contractions of the genital muscles that occur at the peak of sexual excitement. In men, these muscle contractions lead to ejaculation.

osteoarthritis Progressive, gradual thinning or destruction of cartilage in the joints, usually resulting from aging, injury, or overuse.

osteomalacia Softening, weakening, and loss of minerals from the bones of an adult as a result of vitamin D deficiency.

osteoporosis A disorder in which bones become thin, brittle, and more susceptible to fracture. Although osteoporosis is far more common in women, it also can occur in men.

otolaryngologist A physician who specializes in treating disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.

oxidation A damaging chemical reaction in the cells of the body caused by the actions of oxygen free radicals.

oxygen free radicals Molecules produced in the body (by normal cell activity or by external agents such as radiation and cigarette smoke) that change, damage, or break down cells. Oxygen free radicals are a major cause of disease and aging.

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