Example I Classification Of Bladder Cancer Subtypes

As an example, our lab was faced with the problem of building a classifier that could categorize a bladder cancer as superficial or invasive based on a DNA chip test of a biopsy from the patient (Thykjaer et al., 2001). We only had biopsies from 10 patients. We decided to use a model without any estimated parameters at all. We simply measured the angle between the vector of all gene expression levels for each patient and the vectors of two reference samples of pools of superficial and invasive cancer. The angle was always smallest to the correct pool, because the vector angle distance was smallest

EXAMPLE II: CLASSIFICATION OF SRBCT CANCER SUBTYPES

EXAMPLE II: CLASSIFICATION OF SRBCT CANCER SUBTYPES

First Principal Component

Fig. 10.4 Principal component analysis of 63 small, round blue cell tumors. Different symbols are used for each of the four categories as determined by classical diagnostics tests. (See color plate.)

First Principal Component

Fig. 10.4 Principal component analysis of 63 small, round blue cell tumors. Different symbols are used for each of the four categories as determined by classical diagnostics tests. (See color plate.)

between samples from the same subtype (Figure 10.3). This approach was identical to the k nearest neighbor method with k = 1 and vector angle as distance measure. Since we had used no parameters to estimate this classifier, we expected it to be general. It was. When we received four new patient samples from our collaborators, they were correctly classified as well. The method was validated, although on a very small number of patients.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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