Granulocytic Pleiocytosis

(1) Granulocytic pleocytosis (i.e., polynucl ar) (2) Mononuclear pleocytosis Lymphocytic pleocytosis Neutrophilic granulocytes Mostly in bacterial neuroinfections Activated lymphocytes Activated lymphocytes with presence of plasma cells very complicated differential diagnosis Presence of malignant cells, accompanying cellular reaction differs highly, predominantly of monocyte type Parasitary, mycotic, allergic, and autoagressive diseases Serous neuroinfections Chronic neuroinfections, multiple...

Table

Definition of Terms for Numeric Evaluation of CSF Barrier Concentration of IgG in cerebrospinal fluid in mg L-1 Concentration of albumin in blood serum in mg L-1 Concentration of IgG in blood serum in g L-1 (or in mg L-1) Concentration of albumin in cerebrospinal fluid in mg L-1 Mathematical limit to the quotient of IgG (similar to IgA and IgM) Quantity of IgG produced in CNS (LOC local) Quantity of intrathecally produced IgG out of the total quantity of IgG in CSF ( ) Note Using the individual...

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MM multiple myeloma ATL adult T-cell leukemia ALL acute lymphoblastic leukemia CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia FCC follicular center cell lymphoma DLC diffuse large cell lymphoma TRB T-cell rich B-cell lymphoma ALCL anaplastic large cell lymphoma MALT mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphoma LC lung cancer CMM cutaneous malignant melanoma TCC transitional cell carcinoma CSCC cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. recently, even in acquired cancers, such as myeloma, ALL, colon cancer, and...

Improved Single Antibody Immunometric Assays

Several noncompetitive assays for haptens reported so far can be regarded as variations of conventional single-antibody immunometric assays, the majority of which the assays in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 are based on principle B1 in Fig. 4. In many cases, these methods employ an automated flow system to simplify the assay procedure and minimize the time and labor required for the analysis. 3.1. Immunometric Assays Using an Automated Flow System Equipped with a Hapten-Immobilizing Affinity Column Some...

Platelet Pathology

Large Platelets and Thrombocytopenia 3.1.1. Bernard-Soulier Syndrome Bernard-Soulier syndrome BSS is a widely studied, albeit rare, disorder whose incidence is approximately less than one in one million. 2, 21, 22 . This autosomal recessive genetic disorder is characterized by the presence of abnormally large platelets seen on peripheral blood smears, mild thrombocytopenia, and prolonged bleeding time. The hallmark of BSS is a defect or congenital deficiency of the platelet glycoprotein Ib...

Biochemical Assessment of Apoptosis

As explained earlier, apoptosis is a fundamental process in cell biology that is critical for tissue and organ development, physiological adaptation, and disease. Therefore, detection of early apoptosis in different tissues is crucial for the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease activity, for example, in cardiovascular diseases V5 and Alzheimer's disease B7, H4 . The assay of apoptosis is also very useful for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanisms of diseases e.g., cancer, sLE, and allergic...

Noncompetitive Hapten Immunoassays Employing Chemical Derivatization of an Analyte Permitting Sandwich Type

The assay procedures described in this section include chemical derivatization of a target hapten molecule to enable a variation of the sandwich-type assay. 2.1. Sandwich-Type Assay Based on Biotinylation of a Target Hapten Ishikawa and colleagues reviewed in Refs. I4 and I5 reported one of the earliest noncompetitive hapten immunoassays, which is based on principle A in Fig. 4. In this procedure, a target hapten having a primary amino group was quantitatively converted into a biotin adduct by...

Isoelectric Focusing of the CSF

Classical electrophoresis of CSF has largely been abandoned. In physiological conditions, in comparison with serum, the expression of prealbumin, -globulin, and a trace of y-fraction is present. In a large affection of the blood-brain barrier or in the case of hemorrhage within a liquor space, the levels of certain fractions are nearer to those of serum. The meaningful polyclonal increase of y -fraction is typical in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Classical electrophoresis is not suitable for the...

Multiple Sclerosis

Currently multiple sclerosis is classified in the group of diseases with an autoimmune etiology. From the aspect of cytology of cerebrospinal fluid, this disease can be referred to as a serous inflammatory process of a chronic nature, usually with a less expressed cellular response. The typical finding includes lymphocytic oligo-cytosis or lymphocytic pleocytosis, usually only of a mild degree. If the element count is higher, exceeding 100 3 l 35 l in the Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber, it is...

CSF Cytology

The description of cytological findings in cerebrospinal fluid is very inconsistent in the literature since no generally recognized uniform classification of these findings has been proposed to date. The need for developing such a classification system becomes quite obvious against the background of the renaissance in CSF cytology that our country is currently experiencing. A conditio sine qua non for developing a uniform classification system is its general applicability and recognition as...

CSF Proteins and Evaluation of the CSF Proteinogram

A Four-Compartment Model as a Basis for CSF Diagnosis ofCNS The complex anatomy of the brain requires a schematic model for interpreting serum and CSF findings Fig. 1 . The assumption of the four-compartment model suffices for the laboratory diagnosis of CNS diseases. These compartments are as follows intravascular compartment lumen of the capillaries and venules of the parenchyma, the choroid plexus, and the leptomeninges Fig. 1. Model of subarachnoidal space, CSF flow, and molecular...

Conclusion

In this overview we have highlighted the normal biochemical functions of platelets, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. We have attempted to relate defects in these cells to derangement in function. With the explosion of knowledge in the chemistry, immunology, and molecular biology of these cells, it is to be hoped that in the near future we will come to a fuller understanding of the basis of hematological disease. 1. White, J. G., Interactions of membrane systems in blood platelets. Am. J. Pathol....

Noncompetitive Immunoassays for Small Molecules with High Sensitivity and Specificity

Introduction Principle and Advantages of Noncompetitive Immunoassays 140 2. Noncompetitive Hapten Immunoassays Employing Chemical Derivatization of an Analyte Permitting Sandwich-Type Determination 3. Improved Single-Antibody Immunometric 4. Noncompetitive Hapten Immunoassays Using New-Generation Antibody Reagents References 1. Overview 2. Three Components to Genetic 3. Pre-analytic 4. Overview of Analytic Phase 5. Specimen Accessioning and Sample Preparation 6. Technology for Analysis 7....