Contributors

Luciano Avio Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, University di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80 56124 Pisa, Italy. Tahia Benitez Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of Seville, Apartado 109, E-41080 Seville, Spain. Deepak Bhatnagar Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70124, USA. S. M. Boyetchko Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research...

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A Modified from 29 B Modified from 12 . G genetic line B bakers' W wine, Br brewers' D distillers' V velum. A Modified from 29 B Modified from 12 . G genetic line B bakers' W wine, Br brewers' D distillers' V velum. the best strain and, by removing all other strains from the mixed population, selection acting in this way would eliminate genetic variation. A possible explanation is that selection favours different genotypes under different conditions. Alternatively, several genotypes may work...

Preface

The fungal kingdom consists of one of the most diverse groups of living organisms. They are numerous and ubiquitous, and undertake many roles, both independently, and in association with other organisms. In modern agriculture and food industry, fungi feature in a wide range of diverse processes and applications. In the food and drink arena role of fungi are historically important as mushrooms, in fermented foods, and as yeasts for baking and brewing. These roles are supplemented by the use of...

Strain Types

There are basically two kinds of yeast used in brewing that correspond to the ale and lager types of beer. Ale beer is produced by a top-fermenting yeast that works at about room temperature, ferments quickly, and produces beer with a characteristic fruity aroma. The bottom-fermenting lager yeast works at lower temperatures, about 10-14 C, ferments more slowly and produces beer with a distinct taste. The vast majority of beer production worldwide is lager. It is difficult to make...

Recent Advances In Substrate Preparation

Lignocellulosics account for about 60 of the total plant biomass and are the most abundant natural raw material present on the Earth. These are produced through photosynthetic reactions operating inside the cells of green plants and the net dry biomass production by plants is estimated to be 155 billion tons per year 187 . Lignocellulosics contain mainly cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. This inexhaustible and renewable natural source can be utilized through microbes for the production of...

Molecular Techniques In Genetic Improvement Of Edible Mushrooms

Life Cycle Volvariella Volvacea

Owing to the economic importance of the edible mushrooms and various biotechnological tools available with the researchers, genetic improvement programmes of mushrooms have gained a strong momentum. The pre-requisite step in the genetic improvement programme of fungi is the availability of large stocks of germplasm having variability in different attributes of commercial importance and also the cultures can be raised from the wild germplasm, either by tissue culture or spore culture techniques...

Edible Mushrooms And Bioremediation

Bioremediation Fungi

Bioremediation here signifies removal or detoxification of xenobiotic compounds present in soil or water ecosystem through normal physiological and biochemical processes catalyzed by the existing or introduced microflora. The solid state fermentation technology employed for substrate preparation for the cultivation of A. bisporus and A. bitorquis can help in answering many questions related to the environmental problems. Recently, the solid state fermentation has widened its horizons, and...

Solubility of Carotenoids

Carotenoids are lipophilic compounds that are nearly insoluble in water 85 . In aqueous systems they tend to form aggregates or adhere to non-specific surfaces. Carotenes are soluble in polar organic solvents such as acetone and methanol acetone methanol mixtures that are frequently used for extraction of pigment from biological materials including fungi, which have high water content. Crystalline carotenes can be difficult to dissolve in such solvents but they can be dissolved in non-polar...

References

Carotenoids in fungi and nonphotosynthetic bacteria, p. 29-88. In D. J. D Hockenhull, Ed . Progress in Industrial Microbiology. Churchhill -Livingstone, Edinburgh and London. 2. Johnson E. A. and W. Schroeder 1995 . Microbial carotenoids, In Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 53 119178. 3. Weedon, B. C. L. 1971 . In O. Isler, Ed , Carotenoids. Birkha ser Verlag, Basel und Stuttgart. 4. Barkovich, R. and J. C. Liao 2001 . Metabolic engineering of isoprenoids. Metabol. Eng. 3...

Production Of Carotenoids

As pointed out above, certain fungi and microalgae are capable of producing high levels of various carotenoids 1, 2, 59, 65, 238 . Among the lower fungi, the zygomycete Blakeslea trispora was used in a process using the stimulators p-ionone and improniazid giving a maximum yield of about 3.2 g 1 1 of p-carotene 239 . Strain improvement in this fungus was difficult since it is multinucleate in all life stages 240 . Mucorales including Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Choanephora curbibitarium have...

Carotene Properties And General Concerns

The term carotenoids represent a class of structurally related pigments, comprised mainly of C40 isoprenoids containing a characteristic polyene chain of conjugated double bonds 68-70 , The two major groups are the hydrocarbons carotenes and their oxygenated derivatives xanthophylls . More than 600 carotenoids have been isolated 68. 70, 71 . The primordial carotene molecule phytoene is formed by head-to-head condensation of two geranylgeranyl precursors and has an acyclic C40H56 structure...

Subcellular Localization Of Carotenoids In Fungi

In biological systems carotenoids do not appear localized as free molecules in the cell cytoplasm but instead are present in lipid globules or in membranes. Carotenoids are also associated with proteins or lipoproteins 23 . The cellular location would be expected to depend on their structure, hydrophobicity, and modifications such as hydroxylation or esterification see Figure 9 . Modifications would also determine their orientation and localization in membranes 224, 225 see Fig. 9 . Carotenoid...