References

  1. Goodwin, T. W. (1972). Carotenoids in fungi and nonphotosynthetic bacteria, p. 29-88. In: D. J. D Hockenhull, (Ed). Progress in Industrial Microbiology. Churchhill -Livingstone, Edinburgh and London.
  2. Johnson E. A. and W. Schroeder (1995). Microbial carotenoids, In: Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 53: 119178.
  3. Weedon, B. C. L. (1971). In: O. Isler, (Ed), Carotenoids. Birkhaüser Verlag, Basel und Stuttgart.
  4. Barkovich, R. and J. C. Liao (2001). Metabolic engineering of isoprenoids. Metabol. Eng. 3: 27-39.
  5. Harker, M. and J. Hirschberg. (1998). Molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in photosynthetic organisms. Meth. Enzymol. 297: 244-263.
  6. Lagarde, D., L. Beuf and W. Vermaas (2000). Increased production of zeaxanthin and other pigments by application of genetic engineering techniques to Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 64-72.
  7. Miura, Y., K. Kondo, T. Saito, H. Shimada, P. D. Fraserand and N. Misawa (1998a). Production of the carotenoids lycopene, ß-caroteneand astaxanthin in the food yeast Candida utilis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 1226-1229.
  8. Miura,, Y., K. Kondo, T. Saito, K. Nakamuraand and N. Misawa. (1998b). Production of lycopene by the food yeast, Candida utilis, that does not naturally synthesize carotenoid. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 58: 306-308.
  9. Sandmann, G.and S. Kowalczyk (1989). In vitro carotenogenesis and characterization of the phytoene desaturase reaction in Anacystis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 163 (2): 916-921.
  10. Sandmann, G. (2001). Carotenoid biosynthesis and biotechnological application. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385:4-12.
  11. Mann, V., M. Harker, I. Pecker and J. Hirschberg (2000). Metabolic engineering of astaxanthin production in tobacco flowers. Nature Biotechnol. 18: 888-892.
  12. Römer, S., P. D. Fräser, J. W. Kiano, C. A. Shipton, N., Misawa, W. Schuch and P. M. Bramley (2000). Elevation of provitamin A content of transgenic tomato plants. Nature Biotechnol. 18: 666-669.
  13. Ye, X., S. Al-Babili, A. Klöti, J. Zhang, P. Lucca, P. Beyer and I. Portrykyus (2000). Engineering the provitamin A (ß-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science 287: SOSSOS.
  14. Humphrey, J. H., K. P. West, Jr. and A. Sommer (1992). Vitamin A deficiency and attributable mortality under 5 year olds. WHO Bull. 70: 225-232.
  15. Sommer, A. (1997). Vitamin A deficiency, child health and survival. Nutrition 13: 484-485.
  16. Bendich, A. and J.A.Olson (1989). Biological actions of carotenoids. FASEB J. 3: 1927-1932.
  17. Burton, G. W. and S. K. Ingold (1984). ß-Carotene: An unusual type of lipid antioxidant. Science 224: 569573.
  18. Halliwell, B. (1997. Antioxidants and human disease: A general introduction. Nutr. Rev. 55: 544-552.
  19. Krinsky, N. I. (1998. The antioxidant and biological properties of the carotenoids. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sei. 854: 443-447.
  20. Krinsky, N. I. and S. T. Many (1999). Current views on carotenoids: biology, epidemiology and trials, p. 4656. In: M. A. Livrea (ed.), Vitamin A and Retinoids: an Update of Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel.
  21. Naguib, Y. M. A. (2000). Antioxidant activities of astaxanthin and related carotenoids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 1150-1154.
  22. Palozza, P. and N. I. Krinsky (1992). Antioxidant effects of carotenoids in vivo and in vitro: an overview. Meth. Enzymol. 213: 403-420.
  23. Young, A. J. and G. M. Lowe (2001). Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of carotenoids. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385:20-27.
  24. Bertram, J. S. (1999). Carotenoids and gene regulation. Nutr. Rev. 57: 182-191.
  25. Chew, B. P., J. S. Park, M. W. Wong and T. S. Wong (1999). A comparison of the anticancer activities of dietary ß-carotene, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in mice in vivo. Anticancer Res. 19: 1849-1854.
  26. Hinds, T. S., W. L. West and and E. M. Knight (1997). Carotenoids and retinoids: a review of research, clinical and public health applications. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 37: 551-558.
  27. Mayne, S. T. (1996). Beta-carotene, carotenoids and disease prevention in humans. FASEB J. 10: 690-701.
  28. Miki, W. (1991). Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids. Pure Appl. Chem. 63: 141-146.
  29. von den Bergh. (1999). Carotenoid interactions. Nutr. Rev. 57: 1-10.
  30. Wang, X, R., Willén and T. Wadstrom (2000). Astaxanthin-rich meal and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/cA mice. Antimicrob. Ag. Chemother. 44: 2452-2457.
  31. Chew, B. P. (1993). Role of carotenoids in the immune response. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 2804-2811.
  32. Palozza, P., N. Maggiano, G. Calviello, P. Lanza, E. Piccioni, F. 0. Ranaletti and G. M. Bartoli (1998). Canthaxanthin induces apoptosis in human cancer cell lines. Carcinogenesis 19: 373-376.
  33. Vershinin, A. (1999. Biological functions of carotenoids - diversity and evolution. BioFactors 10: 99-104.
  34. O'Callaghan, M. C. (1996). Biotechnology of food colours: The role of bioprocessing. In: G. A. F. Hendry and J. D. Houghton, (Eds.), Natural Food Colorants, 2nd Edition, Blackie Academic & Professional, Chapman & Hall, London.
  35. Baldauf, S. L. and J. D. Palmer (1993). Animals and fungi are each other's closest relatives: Congruent evidence from multiple proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 11558-11562.
  36. Zhang, S., A. Varma and P. R. Willianson (1999). The yeast Cryptococcus neoformans uses 'mammalian'enhancer sites in the regulation of the virulence gene, CNLAC1. Gene 227: 231-240.
  37. Goffeau. A., B. G. Barrell, H. Bussey, R. W. Davis, B. Dujon, H. Feldmann, F. Galibert, J. D. Hoheisel, C. Jacq, M. Johnston, E. J. Louis, H. W. Mewes, Y. Murakami, P. Philippsen, H. Tettelin and S. G. Oliver. (1996). Life with 6000 Genes. Science 274: 546-567.
  38. Dujon, B. (1996). The yeast genome project: what did we learn? Trends Genet. 12: 263-270.
  39. Tudzynski, P.and B. Tudzynski (1997). Fungal genetics: novel techniques and regulatory circuits, p. 229249. In: Anke, T. (Ed.), Fungal Biotechnology. Chapman & Hall, Weinheim.
  40. Arrach, N., R. Fernández-Martín, E. Cerdá-Olmedo and J. Avalos (2001). A single gene for lycopene cyclase, phytoene synthaseand regulation of carotene biosynthesis in Phycomyces. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 1687-1692.
  41. Golubev, W. I. (1995). Perfect state of Rhodomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma). Yeast 11: 101-110.
  42. Kurtzman, C. P.and J. W. Fell, (Eds.). The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study. 4th edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1998).
  43. Caporale, L. H. (1995). Chemical ecology: a view from the pharmaceutical industry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 75-82.
  44. Liaaen-Jensen, S. and A. G. Andrewes (1972). Microbial carotenoids. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 26: 225-248.
  45. Goodwin, T. W. (1980). The biochemistry of the carotenoids. Vol 1, Chapman and Hall, London, p. 377.
  46. Krubasik, P. and G. Sandmann (2000). A carotenogenic gene cluster from Brevibacterium linens with novel lycopene cyclase genes involved in the synthesis of aromatic carotenoids. Mol. Gen. Genet. 263: 423-432.
  47. Krügel, H., P. Krubasik, K. Weber, H. P. Saluz and G. Sandmann (1999). Functional analysis of genes from Streptomyces griseus involved in the synthesis of isorenieratene, a carotenoid with aromatic end groups, revealed a novel type of carotenoid desaturase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1439: 57-64.
  48. Raisig, A. and G. Sandmann (1999). 4,4'-Diapophytoene desaturase: catalytic properties of an enzyme from the C30 carotenoid pathway of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 181:6184-6187.
  49. Viveiros, M., P. Krubasik, G. Sandmann and M. Houisaini-Iraqui (2000). Structural and functional analysis of the gene cluster encoding carotenoid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium aurum A+. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 187: 95-101.
  50. Rowan, K. S. (1989). Photosynthetic pigments of algae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  51. Liu, B.-H. and Y.-K. Lee (1999). Composition and biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids in the astaxanthin-producing green alga Chlorococcum sp. Biotechnol. Lett. 21: 1007-1010.
  52. Margalith, P. Z. (1999). Production of ketocarotenoids by microalgae. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 51: 431438.
  53. Bauernfeind, J. C., G. B. Brubacher, H. M. Klaui and W. L. Marusisch (1971) Use of carotenoids, p. 743770. In: O. Isler, (Ed). Carotenoids. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel und Stuttgart.
  54. Cunningham, F. X, Jr. and E. Gantt (1998). Genes and enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Mol. Biol. 49: 557-583.
  55. Dixon, R. A. (1999). Plant natural products: the molecular genetic basis of biosynthetic diversity. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 10: 192-197.
  56. Hirschberg, J. (1999). Production of high-value compounds: carotenoids and vitamin E. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 10: 186-191.
  57. Cerdä-Olmedo, E. (1989). Production of carotenoids with fungi, p. 27-42. In: E. J. Vandamme, (Ed.), Biotechnology of Vitamins, Pigmentsand Growth Factors, Elsevier Applied Science, London .
  58. Misawa, N. and H. Shimada (1998). Metabolic engineering for the production of carotenoids in non-carotenogenic bacteria and yeasts. J. Biotechnol. 59: 169-181.
  59. Johnson, E. A. and G. H An (1991). Astaxanthin from microbial sources. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 11(4): 297326.
  60. Bohlmann, J., G. Meyer-Gauen and R. Croteau (1998). Plant terpenoid synthases: Molecular biology and phylogenetic analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 95: 4126-4133.
  61. Sandmann, G. (1997). High level expression of carotenogenic genes for enzyme purification and biochemical characterization. Pure Appl. Chem. 69: 2163-2168.
  62. Sandmann, G., M. Albrecht, G. Schnurr, O. Knörzer and P. Böger (1999). The biotechnological potential and design of novel carotenoids by gene combination in Escherichia coli. Trends Biotechnol. 17: 233-237.
  63. Schmidt-Dannert, C., D. Umeno and F. Arnold (2000). Molecular breeding of carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Nature Biotechnol. 18: 750-753.
  64. Shimada, H., K. Kondo, P. D. Fräser, M. Yutaka, T. Saito and N. Misawa (1998). Increased carotenoid production by the food yeast Candida utilis through metabolic engineering of the isoprenoid pathway. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64 (7): 2676-2680.
  65. Stahmann, K.P. (1997). Vitamins, p. 81-90. Irr. T Anke (Ed.), Fungal Biotechnology, Chapman & Hall, London.
  66. Ong, A. S. H. and E. S. Tee (1992). Natural sources of carotenoids from plants and oils. Meth. Enzymol. 213: 142-167.
  67. Stafford, A. (1986). Plant cell biotechnology: perspectives. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 8: 578.
  68. Britton, G., S. Liaaen-Jensen and H. Pfander, (Eds.) (1995a). Carotenoids. Vol 1A: Isolation and Analysis, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel.
  69. Britton, G., S. Liaaen-Jensen and H. Pfander, (Eds.) (1995b). Carotenoids. Vol IB: Spectroscopy, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel.
  70. Pfander, H. (1992). Carotenoids: An overview. Meth. Enzymol. 213: 3-13.
  71. Eugster, C. H. (1995). History: 175 years of carotenoid chemistry, p. 1-12. In: Britton, G., S. Liaaen-Jensen and H. Pfander (Eds.), Carotenoids. Vol. 1A. Isolation and Analysis. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel
  72. Goodwin, T. W. (1971). Biosynthesis, p. 577-636. In: O. Isler, (Ed), Carotenoids. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel and Stuttgart.
  73. Pfander, H. (1987). Key to carotenoids, 2nd Edition, Appendix (Vol. 1A, Chapter 8). Birkhäuser, Basle (1987).
  74. Weedon, B. C. L. and G. P. Moss (1995). Structure and nomenclature, p. 27-69. In: Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, S. and Pfander H (Eds), Carotenoids, Vol la, Isolation and analysis, Birkhäuser, Basle.
  75. Davies, B. H. (1976). Carotenoids, p. 38-165. In: Goodwin, T. W (Ed.), Chemistry and biochemistry of plant pigments, Academic Press, London, England.
  76. Koyama, Y. and R. Fujii (1999). Cis-trans carotenoids in photosynthesis: configurations, excited-state properties and physiological functions, p. 161-168. In: H. A. Frank, A. J. Young, G. Britton and R. J. Cogdell (Eds.), The Photochemistry of Carotenoids. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
  77. Matsuno, T. (1992). Structure and characterization of carotenoids from various habitats and natural sources. Meth. Enzymol. 213: 22-31.
  78. Yuan, J. -P. and F. Cheng (1999). Isomerization of iraro-astaxanthin to c/'j-isomers in organic solvents. J. Agr. Food Chem. 47: 3656-3660.
  79. Andrewes, A. G. and M. P. Starr (1976). (3R,3'R)-Astaxanthin from the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Phytochem. 15: 1009-1011.
  80. Andrewes, A. G., H. J. Phaff and M. P. Starr (1976). Carotenoids of Phaffia rhodozyma, a red pigmented fermenting yeast. Phytochem. 15: 1003-1007.
  81. Stahl, W., W. Schwarz, A. R. Sundquist and H. Sies (1992). Cis-trans isomers of lycopene and ß-carotene in human serum and tissues. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 294: 173-177.
  82. Krinsky, N. I., M. D. Russett, G. J. Handelman and D. M. Snodderly (1990). Structural and geometrical isomers of carotenoids in human plasma. J. Nutr. 120: 1654-1662.
  83. 0sterlie, M., B. Bjerkeng and S. Liaaen-Jensen (1999). Accumulation of astaxanthin all-£, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective. J. Nutr. 129: 391-398.
  84. Parker, R. S. (1996). Absorption, metabolism and transport of carotenoids. FASEB J. 10: 542-551.
  85. Craft, N. E. and J. H. Soares. 1992. Relative solubility, stabilityand absorptivity of lutein and (5-earotene in organic solvents. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40: 431-434.
  86. Schiedt, K. and S. Liaaen-Jensen (1995). Isolation and analysis, p. 81-108. In. Britton, G., S. Liaaen-Jensen and H. Pfander, (Eds.), Carotenoids. Vol. 1A. Isolation and Analysis. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.
  87. Sedmak, J. J., D. K. Weerasinghe and S. O. Jolly (1990). Extraction and quantification of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma. Biotechnol. Techniq. 4: 107-112.
  88. Latscha, T. (1990). Carotenoids in animal nutrition. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd Print, 2175, Basel, Switzerland.
  89. Foyer, C. H. and J. Harbinson (1999). Relationships between antioxidant metabolism and carotenoids in the regulation of photosynthesis, p. 327-339. In: Frank, H. A., A. J. Young, G. Brittonand R. J. Cogdell (Eds.), The Photochemistry of Carotenoids. Adv. Photosyn. vol. 8. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1999).
  90. Telfer, A., J. De las Rivas and J. Barber (1991). Carotene within the isolated phostosystem II reaction center: Photooxidation and irreversible bleaching of this chromophore by oxidised P680. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1060: 106-114.
  91. Burton, G. W. (1989). Antioxidant action of carotenoids. J. Nutr. 119: 109-111.
  92. Foote, C. S. and R. W. Denny (1968). Chemistry of singlet oxygen. VII. Quenching by beta-carotene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90: 6233-6235.
  93. Krinsky, N. I. (1989). Antioxidant functions of carotenoids. Free Radical Biol. Med. 7:617-635.
  94. Mortensen, A., L. H. Skibsted and T. G. Truscott (2001). The interaction of dietary carotenoids with radical species. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385: 13-19.
  95. Schroeder, W. A. and E. A. Johnson (1993). Antioxidant role of carotenoids in Phaffia rhodozyma. J. Gen. Microbiol. 139: 907-912.
  96. Schroeder, W. A. and E. A. Johnson (1995a). Carotenoids protect Phaffia rhodozyma against singlet oxygen damage. J. Indust. Microbiol. 14: 502-507.
  97. Tuveson, R. W., R. A. Larson and J. Kagan (1988). Role of cloned genes expressed in Escherichia coli in protecting against inactivation by near-UV light and specific phototoxic molecules. J. Bacteriol. 170: 46754680.
  98. Ames, B. N., M. K. Shigenaga and T. M. Hagen (1993). Oxidants, Antioxidantsand the Degenerative Diseases of Aging. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 7915-7922.
  99. Nakano, T., T. Kanmuri, M. Sato and M. Takeuchi (1999). Effect of astaxanthin rich yeast (Phaffia rhodozyma) on oxidative stress in rainbow trout. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1426: 119-125.
  100. Peto, R., R. Doll, J. D. Buckley and M. B. Sporn (1981). Can dietary p-carotene materially reduce cancer rates? Nature (London) 290: 201-208.
  101. Horton, P., A. V. Ruban and A. J. Young (1999). The electronic states of carotenoids, p. 137-157. In: Frank, H. A., A. J. Young, G. Britton and R. J. Cogdell, R, (Eds), The photochemistry of carotenoids, Kluwer Academic, Dordreacht, The Netherlands.
  102. van den Berg, H., R. Faulks, F. H. Granado, J. Hirschberg, B. Olmedilla, G. Sandman, S. Southon and W. Stahl (2000). The potential for the improvement of carotenoid levels in food and the likely system effects. J. Sci. Food. Agr. 80: 880-912.
  103. Rice-Evans, C. A., J. Sampson, P. M. Bramley and D. E. Holloway (1997). Why do we expect carotenoids to be antioxidants in vivo? Free Radical Res. 26: 381-398.
  104. Baltschun, D., S. Beutner, K. Briviba, H. D. Martin, J. Paust, M. Peters, S. Rover, H. Sies, W. Stahl and F. Stenhorst (1997). Singlet Oxygen Quenching Abilities of Carotenoids. Liebigs Ann-Recueil. 9: 1887-1893.
  105. Woodall, A. A., S. W. Lee, R. J. Weesie, M. J. Jackson and G. Britton (1997). Oxidation of carotenoids by free radicals: relationship between structure and reactivity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1336: 33-42.
  106. Halliwell, B. and J. M. C. Gutteridge (1999). Free radicals in biology and medicine, 3rd ed., Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.
  107. Mortensen, A., L. H. Skibsted, J. Sampson, C. Rice-Evans and S. A. Everett (1997). Comparative mechanisms and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants. FEBS Lett. 418:91-97.
  108. Palozza, P. (1998). Proxidant actions of carotenoids in biologic systems. Nutr. Rev. 56: 257-265.
  109. Jyonouchi, H., S. Sun, K. Iijima and M. D. Gross (2000). Antitumor activity of astaxanthin and its mode of action. Nutr. Cancer 36: 59-65.
  110. Nishino, H. (1998). Cancer prevention by carotenoids. Mutat. Res. 402: 159-163.
  111. Wolz, E., H. Liechti, B. Notter, G. Oesterhelt and A. Kistler (1999). Characterization of metabolites of astaxanthin in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Drug Metab. Dispos. 27: 456-462.
  112. An, G. -H., J. Bielich, R. Auerbach and E. A. Johnson (1991). Isolation and characterization of carotenoid hyperproducer mutants yeast by flow cytometry and cell shorting. Bio. Technol. 9: 70.
  113. Schroeder, W. A. and E. A. Johnson (1995b). Singlet oxygen and peroxyl radicals regulate carotenoid biosynthesis in Phaffia rhodozyma. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 18374-18379.
  114. Schroeder, W. A., P. Calo, M. L. DeClerq and E. A. Johnson (1996). Selection for carotenogenesis in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma by dark-generated singlet oxygen. Microbiol. 142: 2923-2929.
  115. Gershon, H. and D. Gershon (2000). The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model for aging research: a critical review. Mech. Ageing Develop. 120: 1-22.
  116. Guarente, L. and C. Kenyon (2000). enetic pathways that regulate ageing in model organisms. Nature 408: 255-262.
  117. Jamieson, D. J. (1998). Oxidative stress responses of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 14: 15111527.
  118. Packer, L. (Ed.). (1992). Carotenoids. Part A. Chemistry, Separation, Quantitation and Autoxidation. Meth. Enzymol. vol. 213. Academic Press, San Diego.
  119. Britton, G. (1995). Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. FASEB J. 9: 1551-1558.
  120. Schmitz, H. H., C. L. Poor, E. T. Gugger and J. W. Erdman, Jr. (1993). Analysis of carotenoids in human and animal tissues, p. 102-116. In: Packer, L. (Ed.), Meth. Enzymol., vol. 214. Academic Press, San Diego.
  121. Simpson, K. L„ C. O. Chichester and H. J. Phaff (1971). Carotenoid pigments of yeasts, p. 493-515. In: Rose, A. H. and J. S. Harrison, (Eds.), The Yeasts, Vol. 2. Academic Press, New York.
  122. Johnson, E. A., T. G. Villa, M. J. Lewis and H. J. Phaff (1978). Simple method for the isolation of astaxanthin from the basidiomycetous yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35: 1155-1159.
  123. An, G. H., D. B. Schuman and E. A. Johnson. (1989). Isolation of Phaffia rhodozyma mutants with increased astaxanthin content. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55: 116-124.
  124. Johnson, E. A. and M. J. Lewis (1979). Astaxanthin formation by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. J. Gen. Microbiol. 115: 173-183.
  125. Johnson, E. A., M. J. Lewis and C. R. Grau (1980). Pigmentation of egg yolks with astaxanthin from the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Poult. Sei. 59: 1777-1782.
  126. Pera, L. M., L. Rubinstein, M. D. Baigori, L. I. C. de Figueroa and D. A. Callieri (1999). Influence of manganese on cell morphology, protoplast formation and D-glucosidase activity in Phaffia rhodozyma. FEMS Lett. 171: 155-160.
  127. Wery, J., M. J. M. Dalderup, J. Ter Linde, and A. J. J. van Ooyen (1996). Structural and phylogenetic analysis of the actin gene from the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Yeast 12: 641-651.
  128. Velayos, A., A. P. Eslava and E. A. Iturriaga (2000b). A bifunctional enzyme with lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase activities is encoded by the carRP gene of Mucor circinelloides. Eur. J. Biochem. 267: 5509-5519.
  129. Pfander, H. Chromatography: Part I. (1995). General Aspects. /«: Britton, G., S. Liaaen-Jensen and H. Pfander, (Eds), Carotenoids. Vol 1A: Isolation and analysis, Birkhäuser, Basle, pp 109-116.
  130. Straub, O. (1987). Key to Carotenoids, 2nd edition. H. Pfander (Ed.). Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel.
  131. Isler, O. (Ed.) (1971). The Carotenoids. Bitkhäuser Verlag, Basel.
  132. Pecker, I., D. Chamovitz, H. Linden, G. Sandmann and J. Hoirschberg (1992). A single polypeptide catalyzing the conversion of phytoene to □-carotene is transcriptionally regulated during tomato fruit ripening. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 89: 4962-4966.
  133. Connolly, J. D. and R. A. (1991). Hill. Dictionary of terpenoids. Chapman and Hall, New York (1991).
  134. McCaskill, D. and R. Croteau (1997). Prospects for the bioengineering of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Adv. Biochem. Eng. 55: 107-146.
  135. Anke, T. (Ed.) (1997). Fungal Biotechnology. Chapman & Hall, London.
  136. Vandamme, E. J, (Ed.) (1989). Biotechnology of Vitamins, Pigments and Growth Factors. Elsevier Applied Science, London.
  137. Vandamme, E. J. (1992). Production of vitamins, coenzymes and related biochemicals by biotechnological processes. J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol. 53: 313-327.
  138. Cai, P., D. Smith, B. Cunningham, S. Brown-Shimer, B. Katz, C. Pearce, D. Venables and D. Houck. (1998). Epolones: novel sesquiterpene-tropolones from fungus OS-F69284 that induce erythropoietin in human cells. J. Natural Products 61: 791-795.
  139. Bailly, J. D., P. Le Bars, A. Pietri, G. Benard and J. Le Bars (1999). Evaluation of a fluorodensitometric method for analysis of ergosterol as a fungal marker in compound feeds. J. of Food Protect. 62: 686-690.
  140. Bejarano, E. R. and E. Cerda-Olmedo (1992). Independence of the carotene and sterol pathways of Phycomyces. FEBS Letters 306: 209-212.
  141. Hirai, N., R. Yoshida, Y. Todoroki and H. Ohigashi (2000). Biosynthesis of abscisic acid by the non-mevalonate pathway in plants and by the mevalonate pathway in fungi. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 64: 1448-1458.
  142. Atta, R. U., A. Nesreen, F. Akhtar, M. S. Sheckhani, J. Clardy, M. Parvez and M. I. Choudhari (1997). Antifungal diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium denudatum. J. Natural Prod. 60: 472-474.
  143. Dewick, P. M. (1997). Medicinal Natural Products. A Biosynthetic Approach, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
  144. Milanova, R. and M. Moore (1993). The hydroxylation of plant diterpene analogues by the fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum. Archives of Biochem. Biophys. 303: 165-171.
  145. Nes, W. D., E. J. Parish and J. M. Trzaskos (Eds.) (1992). Regulation of isopentenoid metabolism. ACS Symp. Series 497, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC.
  146. Azevedo, J. E. and A. Videira (1994). Characterization of a membrane fragment of respiratory chain complex I from Neurospora crassa. Insights on the topology of the ubiquinone-binding site. Int. J. Biochem. 26: 505510.
  147. Brunt., S. A and J. C. Silver (1991). Molecular cloning and characterization of two distinct hsp85 sequences from the steroid responsive fungus Achlya ambisexualis. Curr Genet. 19: 383-388.
  148. Griinler, J., J. Ericcson and G. Dallner (1994). Branch-point relationships in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, dolichol, ubiquinone and prenylated proteins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1212: 259-277.
  149. Bocking T, K., D. Barrow, A. G. Netting, T. C. Chilcott, H. G. Coster and M. Hofer (2000). Effects of singlet oxygen on membrane sterols in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eur. J. Biochem. 267: 1607-1618.
  150. Rohmer, M., M. Knami, P. Simonin, B. Sutter and H. Sahm (1993). Isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: a novel pathway for the early steps leading to isopentenyl diphosphate. Biochem. J. 295: 517-524.
  151. Rohmer, M. (1999). The discovery of a mevalonate-independent pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria, algae and higher plants. Nat. Prod. Rep. 16: 565-574.
  152. Disch, A. and M. Rohmer (1998). On the absence of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate/pyruvate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in fungi and yeasts. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 168: 201-208.
  153. Miller, M. W., M. Yoneyama and M. Soneda (1976). Phaffia, a new yeast genus in the Deuteromycotina (Blastomycetes). Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 26: 286-291.
  154. Fell, J. W. and G. M. Blatt (1999). Separation of strains of the yeasts Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous and Phaffia rhodozyma based on rDNA IGS and ITS sequence analysis. J. Indust. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23: 677-681.
  155. Fell, J. W„ T. Boekhout, A. Fonseca, G. Scorzetti, and A. Statzell-Tallman (2000). Biodiversity and systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts as determined by large-subunit rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 3:1351-1371.
  156. McLaughlin, E. G. McLuaghlin and P. A. Lemke (Eds.) (2001). The Mycota: a comprehensive treatise on fungi as experimental systems for basid and applied research. VII. Systematics and Evolution. SpringerVerlag, Berlin.
  157. An, G. H., M. -H. Cho and E. A. Johnson (1999). Monocyclic carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma {Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous). J. Biosci. Bioeng. 88: 189-193.
  158. An, G. H., O. S. Suh, H. -C. Kwon, K. Kim and E. A. Johnson (2000). Quantification of carotenoids in cells of Phaffia rhodozyma by autoflorescence. Biotech. Lett. 22: 1031-1034.
  159. Bon, J. A., T. D. Leathers and R. K. Jayaswal (1997). Isolation of astaxanthin-overproducing mutants of Phaffia rhodozyma. Biotechnol. Lett. 19: 109-112.
  160. Calo, P., T. De Miguel, B. Jorge and T. G. Villa (1995). Mevalonic acid increases /ram-astaxanthin and carotenoid biosynthesis in Phaffia rhodozyma. Biotechnol. Lett. 17: 575-578.
  161. Chan, H. Y. and K. P. Ho (1999). Growth and carotenoid production by pH-stat cultures of Phaffia rhodozyma. Biotechnol. Lett. 21: 953-958.
  162. Gu, W. -L., G. H. An, and E. A. Johnson. (1997). Ethanol increases carotenoid production in Phaffia rhodozyma. J. Indust. Microbiol. Biotech. 19: 114-117.
  163. Endo, A. and K. Hasumi (1993). HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Nat. Prod. Rep. 10: 541-550.
  164. Goldstein, J. L. and M. S. Brown (1990). Regulation of the mevalonate pathway. Nature 343: 425-430.
  165. Verdoes, J. C. and A. J. J. van Ooyen (1999). Isolation of the isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase encoding gene of Phafia rhodozyma\ improved carotenoid production in Escherichia coli. Acta Bot. Gallica 146: 4353.
  166. Basson, M. E., M. Thorsness and J. Rine (1986). Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two functional genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 83: 5563-5567.
  167. Dimster, D. D., M. K. Thorsness and J. Rine (1994). Feedback regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Biol. Cell. 5: 656-665.
  168. Hampton, R., D. Dimster-Denk and J. Rine (1996). The biology of HMG-CoA reductase: the pros of contraregulation. Trends Biochem. Sei. 21: 140-145.
  169. Casey, W. M., G. A. Keesler and L. W. Parks (1992). Regulation of partitioned sterol biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Bacteriol. 174: 7283-7288.
  170. Thorsness, M., W. Schalfer, L. D'ari and J. Rine (1989). Positive and negative transcriptional control by heme of genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Cell. Biol. 9: 5702-5712.
  171. Bramley, P. M. and A. Mackenzie (1988). Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis, Vol. 29, p. 291-343. In: B. L. Horockerand E. R. Stadtman (Eds.), Current topics in cellular regulation, Academic Press, San Diego, California.
  172. Sandmann, G. (1994). Carotene biosynthesis in microorganisms and plants. Eur. J. Biochem. 223: 7-24.
  173. Kuntz, M., S. Romer, C. Suire, P. Hugueny, J. H. Weil, R. Schantz and B. Camara. 1992. Identification of a cDNA for the plastid-located geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase from Capsicum annum: correlative increase in enzyme activity and transcript level during fruit ripening. Plant J. 2: 25-34.
  174. Young, C., L. McMillan, E. Telfer and B. Scott (2001). Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of an indole-diterpene cluster from Penicillium paxilli. Mol. Microbiol. 39: 754-764.
  175. Jiang, Y., P. Proteau, D. Poulter and S. Ferro-Novick (1995). BTS1 encodes a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Biochem. 270: 21793-21799.
  176. Bolotin-Fukuhara, M., C. Toffano-Nieoche, F. Artiguenave, G. Dechateau-Nguyen, M. Lemaire, R. Marmeisse, R. Montrocher, C. Robert, M. Termier, P. Wincker and M. Wesolowski-Louvel (2000). Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeast: 11. Kluyveromyces lactis. FEBS Letts. 487: 66-70.
  177. Bon, E., C. Neuveglise, S. Casaregola, F. Artiguenave, P. Wincker, M. Aigle and P. Durrens (2000). Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 5. Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum. FEBS Lett. 487:37-41.
  178. de Montigny, J., M. Straub, S. Potier, F. Tekaia, B. Dujon, P. Wincker, F. Artiguenave and J. Souciet (2000). Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 8. Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. FEBS Lett. 48:52-55.
  179. Mende, K., V. Homann and B. Tudzynski (1997). The geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene of Gibberellafujikurot isolation and expression. Mol. Gen. 255:96-105.
  180. Carattoli, A., C. Cogoni, G. Morelli and G. Macino (1994). Molecular characterization of upstream regulatory sequences controlling the photoinduced expression of the albino-3 gene of Neurospora crassa. Mol. Microbiol. 13: 787-795.
  181. Dogbo, O. and B. Camara (1987). Purification of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase from Capsicum chromoplasts by affinity chromatography. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 920: 140-148.
  182. Misawa, N., M. R. Truesdale, G. Sandmann, P. D. Fräser, C. Bird, W. Schuch and P. M. Bramley (1994). Expression of a tomato cDNA coding for phytoene synthase in Escherichia coli, phytoene formation in vivo and in vitromd functional analysis of the various truncated gene products. J. Biochem. 116: 980-985.
  183. Armstrong, G. A., M. Alberti and J. E. Hearst (1990). Conserved enzymes mediate the early reactions of carotenoid biosynthesis in nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 87: 9975-9979.
  184. Summers, C., F. Karst and A. D. Charles (1993). Cloning, expression and characterization of the cDNA encoding human hepatic squalene synthaseand its relationship to phytoene synthase. Gene 136: 185-192.
  185. Fraser, P. D., W. Schuch and P. M. Bramley (2000). Phytoene synthase from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) chloroplasts-partial purification and biochemical properties. Planta 211: 361 -369.
  186. Sutton, R. B., D. Fasshauer, R. Jahn and A. T. Brunger (1998). Crystal-strucuture of a SNARE complex involved in synaptic exocytosis at 2.4 angstrom resolution. Nature 395: 3470-353.
  187. Jiang, Y. and S. Ferro-Novick (1994). Identification of yeast component A: reconstitution of the geranylgeranyltransferase that modifies Yptlp and Sec4p. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 91: 4377-4381.
  188. Schmidhauser, T. J., F. R. Lauter, M. Schamacher, W. Zhou, V. E. Russo and C. Yanofsky, C. (1994). Characterization of al-2, the phytoene synthase gene of Neurospora crassa. Cloning sequence analysis and photoregulation. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 12060-12066.
  189. Verdoes, J. C., N. Misawa and A. J. J. van Ooyen (1999). Cloning and characterization of the astaxanthin biosynthetic gene encoding phytoene desaturase of Xanthophyllomyces denarorhous. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 63: 750-755.
  190. Velayos, A., J. L. Blasco, M. I. Alvarez, E. A. Iturriaga and A. P. Eslava (2000). Blue-light regulation of phytoene dehydrogenase (carB) gene expression in Mucor circinelloides. Planta 210 (6): 938-946.
  191. Torres-Martinez, S., F. J. Murilloand E. Cerda-Olmedo (1980). Genetics of lycopene cyclization and substrate transfer in P-carotene biosynthesis in Phycomyces. Genet. Res. 36: 299-309.
  192. Verdoes, J. C., P. Krubasik, G. Sandmann and A. J. J. van Ooyen (1999). Isolation and functional characterization of a novel type of carotenoid biosynthetic gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. Mol. Gen. Genet. 262:453-461.
  193. Schechtman, M. G., C. and Yanofski (1983). Structure of the tri-functional trp-1 gene from Neurospora crassa and its aberrant expression in Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 2:83-99.
  194. Mullaney, E. J., J. E. Hamer, K. A. Roberti, M. Yelton and W. E. Timberlake (1985). Primary structure of the trpC gene bom Aspergillus nidulans. Mol. Gen. Genet. 199: 37-45.
  195. Hawkins, A. R.and M. Smith (1991). Domain structure and interaction within the pentafunctional arom polypeptide. Eur. J. Biochem. 196: 717-724.
  196. Schmidhauser, T. J., F. R. Lauter, V. E. Russo and C. Yanofski (1990). Cloning, sequenceand photoregulation of al-1, a carotenoid biosynthetic gene of Neurospora crassa. Mol. Cell. Biol. 10: 50645070.
  197. Ehrenshaft, M. and M. E. Daub (1994). Isolation, sequenceand characterization of the Cercospora nicotianae phytoene dehydrogenase gene. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 2766-2771.
  198. Ruiz-Hidalgo, M. J., E. P. Benito, G. Sandmann and A. P. Eslava (1997). The phytoene dehydrogenase gene of Phycomyces: Regulation of its expression by blue light and vitamin A. Mol. Gen. Genet. 253: 734-744.
  199. Harker, M. and J. Hirschberg (1997). Biosynthesis of ketocarotenoids in transgenic cyanobacteria expressing the algal gene for beta-C-4-oxygenase, crtO. FEBS Lett. 404: 129-134.
  200. Kajiwara, S., T. Kakizono, T. Saito, K. Kondo, T. Ohtani, N. Nishio, S. Nagai and N. Misawa (1995). Isolation and functional identification of a novel cDNA for astaxanthin biosynthesis from Haematococcus pluvialismd astaxanthin synthesis in Escherichia coli. Plant Mol. Biol. 29: 343-352.
  201. Misawa, N., S. Kajiwara, K. Kondo, A. Yokohama, Y. Satomi, T. Saito, W. Miki and T. Ohtani (1995). Canthaxanthin biosynthesis by the conversion of methylene to keto groups in a hydrocarbon P-carotene by a single gene. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 3: 867-876.
  202. Misawa, N., Y. Satomi, K. Kondo, A. Yokohama, S. Kajiwara, T. Saito, T. Ohtani and W. Miki (1995b). Structure and functional analysis of a marine bacterial carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster and astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway proposed at the gene level. J. Bacteriol. 177: 6575-6584.
  203. Chamovitz, D., I. Pecker and J. Hirschberg (1991). The molecular basis of resistance to the herbicide norflurazon. Plant. Mol. Biol. 16: 967-74.
  204. Armstrong, G. A., M. Alberti, F. Leach and J. E. Hearst (1989). Nucleotide sequence, organizationand nature of the protein products of the carotenoid biosynthetic gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsullatus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 216: 254-268.
  205. Misawa, N., M. Nakagawa, K. Kobayashi, S. Yomono, Y. Izawa, K. Nakamura and K. Karashima (1990). Elucidation of the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by functional analysis of gene products expressed in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 172: 6704-6712.
  206. Girard, P., B. Falconnier, J. Bricout and B. Vladescu (1994). Carotene producing mutants of P. rhodozyma. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 41: 183-191.
  207. Bartley, G. E., T. J. Schmidhauser, C. Yanofsky and P. A. Scolnick (1990). Carotene desaturases from Rhodobacter capsulatus and Neurospora crassa are structurally and functionally conserved and contain domains homologous to flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 16020-16024.
  208. Simpson, K. L., T. O. M. Nakayama and C. O. Chischester (1964). The biosynthetic origin of the carboxyl oxygen atoms of the carotenoid pigment, torularhodin. Biochem. J. 92: 508-510.
  209. Davies, B. H., J. Villoutreix, R. J. H. Williams and T. W. Goodwin (1963). The possible role of zeacarotene in carotenoid cyclization. Biochem. J. 89: 96.
  210. Fraser, P. D., H. Shimada and N. Misawa (1998). Enzymic confirmation of reactions involved in routes to astaxanthin formation, elucidated using a direct substrate in vitro assay. Eur. J. Biochem. 252: 229-236.
  211. Linden, H. (1999). Carotenoid hydroxylase from Haematococcus pluvialis: cDNA sequence, regulationand functional complementation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1446: 203-212.
  212. Yokoyama, A. and W. Miki (1995). Composition and presumed biosynthetic pathway of carotenoids in the astaxanthin-producing bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 128: 139-144.
  213. Lotan, T. and J. Hirschberg (1995). Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding (5-C-4-oxygenase, that converts p-carotene to the ketocarotenoid canthaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis. FEBS Letts. 364: 125-128.
  214. Schledz, M., S. al-Babili, J. von Lintig, H. Haubruck, S. Rabbani, H. Kleinig and P. Beyer (1996). Phytoene synthase from Narcissus pseudonanarcissus: functional expression, galactolipid requirement, topological distribution in chromoplastsand induction during flowering. Plant J. 10: 781-792.
  215. Bramley, P. M. (1985). The in vitro biosynthesis of carotenoids. Adv. Lip. Res. 21: 243-279.
  216. Fraser P. D and P. M. Bramley (1994). The purification of phytoene dehydrogenase from Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1212: 59-66.
  217. Bramley, P. M. and R. F. Taylor (1985). The solubilization of carotenogenic enzymes of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 839: 155-160.
  218. Kushwaha, S. C, M. Kates and J. W. Porter (1976). Enzymatic synthesis of C40 carotenes by cell-free preparation from Halobacterium cutirubrum. Can. J. Biochem. 54:816-23.
  219. Subbarayan C., S. C. Kushwaha, G. Suzueand and J. W. Porter (1970). Enzymatic conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate-4-14C and phytoene-14C to acyclic carotenes by an ammonium sulfate-precipitated spinach enzyme system. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 137: 547-57.
  220. Qureshi, A. A., A. G. Andrewes, N. Qureshi, and J. W. Porter (1974). The enzymatic conversion of cis-(14C)phytofluene, trans-(14C)phytoflueneand trans-zeta-(14C)carotene to more unsaturated acyclic, monocyclicand dicyclic carotenes by a cell-free preparation of red tomato fruits. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 162: 93-107.
  221. Dailey, T. A. and H. A. Dailey (1998). Identification of an FAD superfamily containing photoporphyrinogen oxidases, monoamine oxidases and phytoene desaturase. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 13658-13662.
  222. Fraser, P. D., Y. Miura and N. Misawa (1997). In vitro characterization of astaxanthin biosynthetic enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 6128-6135.
  223. Yokoyama, A., Y. Shizuri and N. Misawa ( 1998). Production of new carotenoids, astaxanthin glucosides, by Escherichia coli transformants carrying carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Tetrahedron Lett. 39: 3709-3712.
  224. Havaux, M. (1998). Carotenoids as membrane stabilizers in chloroplasts. Trends Plant Sci. 3: 147-151.
  225. Gruszecki, W. I. (1999). Carotenoids in membranes, p. 363-379. In. Frank, H. A., A. J. Young, G. Brittonand R. J. Cogdell, R, (Eds), The photochemistry of carotenoids, Kluwer Academic, Dordreacht, The Netherlands (1999).
  226. van de Ven, M., M. Kattenberg, G. Van Ginkel and Y. K. Levine (1984). Study of the orientational ordering of carotenoids in lipid bilayers by resonance-Raman spectroscopy. Biophys. J. 45: 1203-1209.
  227. Johansson, L. B. A., G. Lindblom, A. Wieslander and G. Arvidson (1981). orientation of p-carotene and retinal in lipid bilayers. FEBS Lett. 128: 97-99.
  228. Sarry, J. E.and J. L. Montillet, Y. Sauvaire and M. Havaux (1994). The protective function of the xanthophyll cycle in photosynthesis. FEBS Letts. 353(2): 147-150.
  229. Chamberlain, N. R., B. G. Mehrtens, Z. Xiong, F. A. Kapral, J. L. Boardman and J. I. Rearick (1991). Correlation of carotenoid production, decreased membrane fluidity and resistance to oleic acid killing in Staphylococcus aureus 19Z. Infect. Immun. 59: 4332-4337.
  230. Carrol, M (Ed) (1989). Organelles. The Guilford Press, N. Y.
  231. Lang, N. J. (1968). Electron microscopic studies of extraplastidic astaxanthin in Haematococcus. J. Phycol. 4: 12.
  232. Kobayashi, M. and Y. Sakamoto (1999). Singlet oxygen quenching abilitiy of astaxanthin esters from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Biotechnol. Lett. 21: 265-269.
  233. Santos, M. F. and J. F. Mesquita (1984). Ultrastructural study of Haematococcus lacustris (girod.) Rostafmski (Volvocales). 1. Some aspects of carotenogenesis. Cytologia 49: 215.
  234. Boze, H., G. Moulin and P. Galzy (1992). Production of food and fodder yeasts. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 12: 65-86.
  235. Yamano, S., T. Ishii, M. Nakagawa, H. Ikenaga and N. Misawa (1994). Metabolie engineering for production of ß-carotene and lycopene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 58: 1112-1114.
  236. Boussiba, S., W. Bing, J. P. Yuan, A. Zarka and F. Chen (1999). Changes in pigment profiles in the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to environmental stresses. Biotechnol. Lett. 21: 601-604.
  237. Chumpolkulwong, N., T. Kakizono, S. Nagai and N. Nishio (1997). Increased astaxanthin production by Phaffla rhodozyma mutants isolated as resistant to diphenylamine. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 83: 429-434.
  238. Cerdä-Olmedo, E. (1989). Production of carotenoids with fungi, p. 27-42. In: E. J. Vandamme, (Ed.) Biotechnology of Vitamins, Pigmentsand Growth Factors, Elsevier Applied Science, London.
  239. Ninet, L. and J. Rinaut (1979). Carotenoids, p. 529-543. In: Peppier, H. J.and D. Perlmann, (Eds.), Microbial Technology, 2nd edition. Academic Press, New York.
  240. Mehta, B. J. and E. Cerdä-Olmedo (1995). Mutants of carotene production in Blakeslea trispora. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 42: 836-838.
  241. Ausich, R. L., F. Brinkhaus, I. Mukharji, J. Proffitt, J. Yarger and H.CH Chen (1991). Biosythesis of carotenoids in genetically engineered hosts. Patent WO 91/13078.
  242. Borowitzka, M. A. (1994). Large-scale algal culture systems: the next generation. Australas. Biotechnol. 4: 212-215.
  243. Borowitzka, L. J. and M. A. Borowitzka. ß-carotene production with algae, p. 15-26. In: E. J. Vandamme, (Ed.) (1989). Biotechnology of Vitamins, Pigmentsand Growth Factors. Elsevier Applied Science, London.
  244. Koeller, K. M. and C.-H. Wong (2001). Enzymes for chemical synthesis. Nature 409: 232-240.
  245. Walsh, C. (2001). Enabling the chemistry of life. Nature 409: 226-231.
  246. Schmid, A., J. S. Dordick, B. Hauer, A. Kiener, M. Wubbolts and B. Witholt (2001). Industrial biocatalysis: today and tomorrow. Nature 249: 258-268.
  247. Klivanov, A. M. (2001). Improving enzymes by using them in organic solvents. Nature 409: 241-246.
  248. van den Werf, M., J. A. M. de Bont and D. J. Leak. 1997. Opportunities in microbial biotransformation of monoterpenes. Adv. Biochem. Eng./Biotechnol. 55: 147-177.
  249. Jari, G. (1997). Heterologous gene expression in filamentous fungi, p. 251-264. In: Anke, T. (Ed.), Fungal Biotechnology, Chapman & Hall, Weinheim.
  250. Broder, S. and J. C. Venter (2000). Sequencing the entire genomes of free-living organims: The foundation of pharmacology in the new millennium. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 40: 97-132.
  251. The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. 2000. Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 408:796-815.
  252. Appleyard, V. C. L., S. E. Unkles, M. Legg and J. R. Kinghorn (1995). Secondary metabolite production in filamentous fungi displayed. Mol. Gen. Genet. 247: 338-342.
  253. Ferea, T. L., D. Botstein, P. O. Brown and R. F. Rosenzweig (1999). Systematic changes in gene expression patterns following adaptive evolution in yeast. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 96: 9721-9726.
  254. Schmidt-Dannert, C. (2000). Engineering novel carotenoids in microorganisms. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 11:

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Applied Mycology and Biotechnology Volume 2. Agriculture and Food Production © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

Have you always wanted to grow your own vegetables but didn't know what to do? Here are the best tips on how to become a true and envied organic gardner.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment