PARP1 in the Pathobiology of Ischemic Stroke

It is now clearly established that cerebral ischemia overactivates PARP-1 in several cell types of the ischemic region and significantly contributes to the extension of ischemic damage. PARP-1 activation occurs not only in injured neurons but also in endothelial and glial cells as well as in pericytes and infiltrating leukocytes. Consistent with PARP-1 involvement in ischemic brain damage, enzymatic activity of PARP-1 in gerbils subjected to transient (5 min) ischemia increases in the injured...

Cell Death Phenotypes Morphological Based Classification

Although substantial progress has been achieved in the last three decades in deciphering the molecular pathways of cell death, a clear definition of fundamental concepts such as apoptosis or necrosis remains to be developed (Farber 1994 Roy and Sapolsky 1999) despite the efforts of many authors (Clarke 1990 Majno and Joris 1995 Levin et al. 1999 Dikranian et al. 2001 Fujikawa 2000 Sloviter 2002). As reviewed by Majno and Joris (1995), the term necrosis has been used since the time of Galen 2000...

References

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Hypoglycemic Brain Injury Epidemiology and Background

The normal range for blood glucose concentrations is 3.9-7.1 mM (1 mM 18 mg dL), and hypoglycemia is broadly defined as blood glucose concentrations below this range. Studies using mice and rats indicate that brain injury does not generally occur unless blood glucose concentrations fall below 1 mM and the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) is isoelectric (silent) for at least 30 min (Auer et al. 1984a, b Auer et al. 1985a, b Suh et al. 2003). Case series suggest that a similar degree of...