Nails And Glands

There are two important groups of skin accessory structures we have not yet mentioned. These are the nails and two types of glands in the skin. Take a glance down at the surfaces of your digits (DIJ-its). Although digits are literally ''fingers'' in Latin, the word also describes your toes. A nail is basically a thick slab of stratum corneum (COR-nee-um) - the hard, ''horny'' (corne) outermost ''layer'' of the epidermis (see Figure 6.2). -Sweat pores -Sweat duct Sweat gland Fig. 6.2 Nails and...

Phocomelia And Thalidomide

Phocomelia

One very dramatic and disturbing example of the effects of a potent teratogen (ter-AT-oh-jen) or ''monster'' (terat) ''producer'' (-gen) on the developing embryo is provided by the drug called thalidomide (thah-LID-oh-meyd). Thalidomide was used extensively as a sedative and sleeping pill during the early 1960s. Physicians had no qualms about giving it to women in the early stages of pregnancy Its use was soon discontinued, however, when a significant number of ''thalidomide babies'' had been...

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Advanced Statistics Demystified Algebra Demystified Anatomy Demystified Astronomy Demystified Biology Demystified Business Statistics Demystified Calculus Demystified Chemistry Demystified College Algebra Demystified Earth Science Demystified Everyday Math Demystified Geometry Demystified Physics Demystified Physiology Demystified Pre-Algebra Demystified Project Management Demystified Statistics Demystified Trigonometry Demystified The Hon. Dr. Dale Pierre Layman, Ph.D., Grand Ph.D. in Medicine...

The Pancreas Some Glands Are Just All Mixed Up

Although most glands are either ductless (the endocrine glands) or have ducts (the exocrine glands), there is a third, hybrid category - the mixed glands. A mixed gland is part endocrine, plus part exocrine, both parts being mixed together within the same gland organ. A key example of a mixed gland is the pancreas (PAN-kree-as). The word, pancreas, means all (pan-) flesh (creas). Certainly, a look at the pancreas will quickly reveal that it is, indeed, composed solely of soft, fleshy epithelial...

Colon Polyps A Warning Sign for Cancer

We have learned that the mucosa has various modifications that enhance absorption of nutrients across it. The mucosa of the colon, however, has some modifications that are definitely not health-enhancing These modifications are colon polyps (PAHL-ips). A polyp is literally a little ''foot.'' It is a small, ''foot''-shaped growth that projects from the surface of a mucous membrane. Although the mucosa of the large intestine is not the only place where polyps can occur, it is a very dangerous...

The Skeletal Muscle as a Little Mouse

Chapter 3, you may remember, introduced the muscular system and summarized it by the word-equation MUSCULAR SYSTEM - SKELETAL MUSCLE ORGANS + TENDONS And Figure 3.1 further talked about the biceps brachii muscle in the upper arm as being representative of the approximately 600 different skeletal muscle organs. It depicted the biceps brachii according to the Common English translation of the Latin term, muscular. We know that it literally ''pertains to'' (-ar) a ''little mouse'' (muscul). The...

Hairs Hair Follicles And Sensory Receptors

Perhaps the most noticeable of all the accessory structures in the skin is the thick forest of hairs that rise up from the surface of the epidermis. Each hair is basically a flexible rod of tightly packed, keratinized squamae (keratin-stuffed scales). The hair shaft is the portion of the hair that extends beyond the skin surface, while the hair root is the bottom portion embedded within a hair follicle (FAHL-uh-kul). (Review Figure 6.1.) A hair follicle is a ''little bag'' lined by a membrane,...

The Muscular System Little Mice Hanging On Our Bones

If you would be brave (or foolish) enough to cut through the skin very deeply, you would see over 600 ''little mice'' hanging onto the bones of your skeleton These are the individual skeletal muscle organs. They make up the bulk of the muscular (MUS-kyoo-lar) system. Reflecting our amusing imagination, the word, muscular, ''pertains to a little mouse'' (muscul). A glance down at Figure 3.1 reveals the source behind this highly visual meaning of the Early Greek scholars. Consider a very familiar...

Yinyang Principle Of Opposing Muscle Action

Most skeletal muscles in the human body are arranged into pairs of antagonists. The biceps brachii forearm flexor versus the triceps brachii forearm extender is one example of an antagonistic muscle pair. ''Can the biceps brachii ever be considered the antagonist '' Yes, it can, if the body movement in question is forearm extension, rather than forearm flexion. In that case, the triceps brachii is the agonist, while the biceps brachii is the antagonist. Therefore, the labels, agonist versus...

Naming the Skeletal Muscles A Fun Exercise in Imagineering

Sternocleidomastoid And Alcohol

In this humble volume, of course, we cannot possibly dissect all 600 individual skeletal muscles There are just too many of these organs hanging onto our skeleton like reddish-colored mice What we can do, however, is to provide a listing of the characteristics used for naming various skeletal muscles. These muscle-naming general characteristics can often be applied numerous times, in combination with other characteristics, to name the specific skeletal muscle organs Characteristic 1 Number of...

Pathological Anatomy of Glands What Happens When an Acorn Falls

If the glands are collectively known in Latin as acorns, then what happens when one of these glandular acorns falls off the tree (human body) Less poetically, we are talking about the issue of gland ablation (ab-LAY-shun). Any type of ablation (ab-LAY-shun), whether it be of a gland or some other body part, is a taking away'' or removal. A gland ablation, as a consequence, is a complete or partial removal of a gland. Sometimes a gland must be ablated (ab-LAYT-ed) or ''taken away'' by surgery....