Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have opened up new possibilities to map distinct aspects of human brain function in vivo. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is widely used to assess changes in regional neuronal activity at high spatial and temporal resolution (1,2). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides a means to probe distinct aspects of brain metabolism at a regional level (3,4). Water diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) can be used to study the integrity of white matter tracks in the brain (5). MRI has already been successfully applied to study the pathophysiology of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) (6,7). The aim of this chapter is to summarize how these innovative MRI methods may be useful for diagnosis and research of atypical parkinsonian disorders.
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